Consistent with a role for AP-3 in the biogenesis of GABAergic SLMV in beta-cells, INS-1 cell VGAT content decreases upon inhibition of AP-3 delta-subunit expression. Our findings suggest that beta-cells and neurons share molecules and mechanisms important for mediating the neuron-specific membrane
trafficking pathways that underlie synaptic vesicle formation.”
“PURPOSE. To determine the effects of topical dorzolamide (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) on choroidal and ciliary blood flow and the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous flow.\n\nMETHODS. The experiments were performed in four groups of pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits treated with topical dorzolamide (2%, 50 mu L). In all groups, intraocular pressure (IOP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) at the eye level were measured continuously by direct cannulation. In group 1, aqueous flow was measured this website by fluorophotometry before GSK923295 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor and after dorzolamide treatment. In group 2, aqueous flow was measured after dorzolamide at normal MAP and while MAP was held constant at 80, 55, or 40 mm Hg with occluders on the aorta and vena cava. In group 3, the same MAP levels were used, and ciliary blood flow was measured transsclerally by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). In group 4, choroidal
blood flow was measured by LDF with the probe tip positioned in the vitreous over the posterior pole during ramp increases and decreases in MAP before and after dorzolamide.\n\nRESULTS. Dorzolamide lowered IOP by 19% (P < 0.01) and aqueous flow by 17% ( P < 0.01), and increased ciliary blood flow by 18% (
P < 0.01), which was associated with a significant reduction in ciliary vasculature resistance (-7%, P < 0.01). Dorzolamide shifted the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous flow downward relative to the previously determined control relationship in the rabbit. Dorzolamide did not alter choroidal blood flow, choroidal vascular resistance, or the choroidal pressure flow relationship.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Acute topical dorzolamide is a ciliary vasodilator and has a direct inhibitory effect on aqueous production, but it does not have a detectable effect AG-881 on choroidal hemodynamics at the posterior pole in the rabbit. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2301-2307) DOI:10.1167/iovs.08-2468″
“The pandemic of 1918 was caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus, which is a negative strand RNA virus; however, little is known about the nature of its direct ancestral strains. Here we applied a broad genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a wide range of influenza virus genes, in particular the PB1 gene, to gain information about the phylogenetic relatedness of the 1918 H1N1 virus. We compared the RNA genome of the 1918 strain to many other influenza strains of different origin by several means, including relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), effective number of codons (ENC), and phylogenetic relationship.