(Here the term “”redundant”" refers to measurements that include

(Here the term “”redundant”" refers to measurements that include repeated sampling of the same peptide pair where each observed pair is an estimator of the relative change in protein abundance as in our

previous work [8, 10].) However, such statistical power is a mixed blessing in that one must then distinguish between real regulatory trends and minor random changes in the system. With so many redundant measurements, it becomes possible to detect very small abundance changes, of magnitude 10% or less, that may or may not have biological meaning [10]. Biological relevance was inferred in part by looking at the consistency of change observed across nutrient limitation comparisons and biological replicates (isotopic

flips), as well as the magnitude of the q-values for each abundance ratio and the criteria given below. Figure 1 Experimental check details design, sample handling and raw data acquisition. The bottom panel is a representation of a single reversed-phase elution during the final stage of the 2-D HPLC tandem MS analysis, total signal (reconstructed ion current, y-axis) versus time (x-axis), of M. maripaludis proteolytic fragments. Figure 2 Experimental design, computational. The effect of each nutrient limitation was assessed by comparing its see more proteome to that from the two other nutrient limitations, thus providing two control AZD8186 chemical structure conditions for each condition under study, green, H2-limitation; orange, click here nitrogen limitation; blue, phosphate limitation; light colors, light isotope (14N); dark colors, heavy isotope (15N). All ratios and statistical values are provided in Additional file 1. Protein abundance was considered to be affected by a particular nutrient limitation only if a significant difference (log2 ratio ≠ 0, q-value ≤ 0.01) was seen in all four comparisons described above, except in a few cases where manual inspection of the data suggested that one of the four determinations was an outlier, in which case it was disregarded. qRT-PCR

was used to assess mRNA abundance ratios for selected ORFs. These measurements confirmed the proteomic trends in each case tested, and also contributed data supporting the concept that proteomic abundance ratios generated using shotgun methods are compressed [8, 10], that is, they tend to underestimate the magnitude of the ratios, especially for highly expressed proteins or high ratios as shown in Tables 1 and 2 and discussed below. The observed compression is consistent with the dynamic range limitations associated with both shotgun proteomics (~102 to ~103) and mRNA microarray analysis, relative to qRT-PCR [10]. Table 1 Selected proteins with altered abundance under H2 limitation. ORF # Function Average log2 ratioa   Methanogenesis   MMP0820 FrcA, coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase 1.30 ± 0.56 MMP1382 FruA, coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase 0.77 ± 0.16 MMP1384 FruG, coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase 0.

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