In experiment 2, we aimed to replicate and enhance the effects ob

In experiment 2, we aimed to replicate and enhance the effects observed in experiment 1, and we also examined the effects of methylphenidate self-administration during adolescence on adult amphetamine-induced

zif268 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression.

Adolescent rats self-administered both cocaine and methylphenidate. There was no effect of adolescent drug self-administration on adult baseline or amphetamine-induced responding for a CR. However, both adolescent methylphenidate and cocaine self-administration increased amphetamine-induced locomotion. Adolescent methylphenidate SNS-032 self-administration also enhanced amphetamine-induced zif268 mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens.

Our findings suggest that repeated, behaviorally 5-Fluoracil in vitro contingent exposure to methylphenidate during adolescence enhances responsivity to the locomotor-stimulating and neuronal activating effects of amphetamine but not incentive motivation.”
“Electroencephalographic oscillations, with different spectral contents, recorded in various brain sites are assumed to play an important role in the information

processes underlying cognition as well as the abnormal brain functioning observed in nosological entities that affect neuronal connectivity such as schizophrenia. In the present study we investigated the interaction of EEG rhythms during the experience of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). For this purpose we analyzed data obtained from patients suffering from persistent AVHs, focusing on the mode that the phase of theta oscillations modulate the amplitude of the broad gamma EEG oscillations. Our results indicate increased phase coupling between theta and gamma rhythms observed in the left frontotemporal cortices during AVHs, under eyes closed condition. The average differences of theta-gamma coupling between hallucinatory and resting stages in the left temporal area were found to be statistically significant. These results suggest that a theta-gamma Endodeoxyribonuclease interaction may be involved in the production and experience of AVHs in patients suffering

from schizophrenia. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the mosquito-borne alphavirus that is the etiologic agent of massive outbreaks of arthralgic febrile illness that recently affected millions of people in Africa and Asia. The only CHIKV vaccine that has been tested in humans, strain 181/clone 25, is a live-attenuated derivative of Southeast Asian human isolate strain AF15561. The vaccine was immunogenic in phase I and II clinical trials; however, it induced transient arthralgia in 8% of the vaccinees. There are five amino acid differences between the vaccine and its parent, as well as five synonymous mutations, none of which involves cis-acting genome regions known to be responsible for replication or packaging.

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