Only patients with magnification requirement up to sixfold were i

Only patients with magnification requirement up to sixfold were included in the study. Training

was performed for 4 weeks with an intensity of 1/2 hr per day and 5 days a week. Reading speed during page reading was measured before and after training. Eye movements during silent reading were recorded before and after training using a video eye tracker in 11 patients (five patients of SM and six of RSVP training group) and using an infrared reflection system in five patients (three patients from the SM and two patients of RSVP training group).\n\nResults: Age, visual acuity and magnification requirement did not differ Selleckchem Elafibranor significantly between the two groups. The median reading speed was 83 words per minute (wpm) (interquartile range 74-105 wpm) in the RSVP training group and 102 (interquartile range 63-126 wpm) in the SM group before training and increased significantly to 104 (interquartile range 81-124 wpm) and 122, respectively (interquartile range 102-137 wpm; p = 0.01 and 0.006) after training,

i.e. patients with RSVP training increased their reading speed by a median of 21 wpm, while it was 20 wpm in the SM group. There were individual patients, who benefited strongly from the training. Eye movement recordings before and after training showed that in the RSVP group, increasing reading speed correlated with decreasing fixation duration (r = -0.75, p = 0.03), whereas in the SM group, increasing reading speed correlated with a decreasing HDAC inhibitor number of forward saccades (r = -0.9, p = 0.01).\n\nConclusion: Although the median effect of both training methods was limited, individual patients benefited well. Our results may indicate a difference in the training effect between both methods on the reading strategy: the RSVP method Nutlin-3 purchase reduces fixation duration, the SM method decreases the number of forward saccades. Patients can apply their newly learned reading

strategy in the natural reading situation, e. g. in page reading without special presentation of the text. These results can be used as a basis for further improvement in training methods for optimizing reading performance in patients with a central scotoma.”
“A two-band Hamiltonian for beta-graphyne is derived by the k.p method. The energy dispersions around the Dirac points are analytically obtained depending on the relative amplitude of the hopping terms t(1)/t(2), and the Dirac cones are elliptical when -2 < t(1)/t(2) < -1. This anisotropic Dirac Hamiltonian leads to electron current direction misalignment with the wave vector, and the transmission spectrum is asymmetric about the incident angle of current, j. This interesting feature is useful for direction-dependent wave filter devices.

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