Results: There were no significant differences be


Results: There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. Three patients in group A experienced either cerebrovascular or cardiac ischemic attacks, while two patients in group B underwent coronary angioplasty during follow-up. Group B showed a more pronounced improvement in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared with group A (P < .05). Moreover, atorvastatin treatment suppressed serum hsCRP, OPN, and OPG ATM inhibitor levels from baseline in both groups (P < .001). Notably,

aggressive treatment decreased OPN (P = .012) and OPG (P = .025) levels to a greater degree compared with moderate treatment. Similarly, GSM score was remarkably increased in both groups, but that augmentation was greater in group B (from 66.39 +/- 23.66 to 100.4 +/- 25.31) than in group A (from 64.4 +/- 23.62 to 85.39 +/- 20.21) (P = .024). No change in the degree of carotid stenosis was noted in both treatment arms. Importantly, the aforementioned GSK461364 mouse reduction in OPN (r = -0.517, P = .024) and OPG (r = -0.312, P = .008) levels was inversely associated with GSM score changes in univariate and standard multiple regression analysis (R(2) = 0.411, P = .021).

Conclusions: Among patients with moderate carotid stenosis, an aggressive atorvastatin regimen enhanced carotid plaque echogenicity and reduced serum

OPN and OPG levels to a greater extent than respective moderate atorvastatin therapy. Most importantly, those atorvastatin-induced effects were associated with Methane monooxygenase OPN and OPG suppression in a dose-dependent manner. (J Vase Surg 2010;51:114-21.)”
“Bupivacaine is one of the amide type local anesthetics and is widely used for epidural anesthesia and blockade of nerves. Bupivacaine administration locally could result in neuron injury showing transient neurologic symptoms. Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid and may exert cytoprotective properties against damage induced by some stimuli. In the present study,

we evaluated the effects of dexamethasone on bupivacaine-induced toxicity in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells. N2a cells were exposed to bupivacaine in the presence or absence of dexamethasone. After treatment, the cell viability, nuclear condensation, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were evaluated. Mitochondrial potential and Akt (threonine serine protein kinase B) activation were also examined. In a separate experiment, we examined the effect of Akt inhibition by triciribine on cell viability following dexamethasone treatment. We also investigated whether dexamethasone could prevent lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity. Treatment of N2a cells with bupivacaine resulted in significant cell injury as evidenced by morphological changes, LDH leakage, and nuclear condensation. Pretreatment of the cells with dexamethasone significantly attenuated bupivacaine- and lidocaine-induced cell injury.

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