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Authors’ contributions The project was conceived and designed by DC, PC and MMC. All experiments were performed by DC and MS with the help of DB (ribotyping). The paper was https://www.selleckchem.com/products/LY294002.html written by DC, MS, PC, and MMC. All authors discussed the results, read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The genus Leptospira belongs to the order Spirochaetales and includes both saprophytic and CUDC-907 pathogenic members, such as Leptospira biflexa and L. interrogans, CP-690550 respectively. Leptospirosis is the most
widespread zoonosis worldwide, with more than one million cases annually [1, 2]. Rodents are the principle reservoir of infections occurring in humans, resulting from renal tubular colonization and urinary excretion of the bacterium . Humans are usually infected through water that is contaminated with the urine of animal reservoirs. This increasingly common disease primarily occurs in rural environments and poor urban centres subject to frequent
flooding. A major barrier to developing effective control of the disease has been our limited understanding of the biology of the bacterium. One of the reasons for this is the slow growth of pathogenic leptospires with a generation time of approximately 20 hours; colonies can take up to 4 weeks to appear on solid medium . Furthermore, there are fewer tools for genetic studies of pathogenic leptospires than are available for many other bacterial pathogens. Tools for genetic manipulation of the saprophyte L. biflexa have been developed in recent years . Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) This work has significantly improved the feasibility of manipulating genes in pathogenic strains. For instance, we first developed systems for targeted mutagenesis and random transposon mutagenesis in the saprophyte L. biflexa and then applied these approaches in the pathogen L. interrogans [5–7]. However, the introduction of exogenous genetic information into pathogenic strains by electroporation  or conjugation  is still hindered by poor transformation efficiencies. In addition, there is no replicative plasmid vector available for pathogenic Leptospira strains. Further development and improvement of genetic tools is therefore necessary for functional analysis of leptospiral virulence factors. High-molecular-weight leptospiral immunoglobulin-like repeat (Lig) proteins were previously identified as putative virulence factors in pathogenic Leptospira spp. [10–12].