venndiagram.tk. Figure 6 OTU diversity of planctomycetes. Rarefaction curves indicating
the expected OTU richness of the clone libraries with different sampling efforts. The phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length sequences obtained in this study and other planctomycete sequences obtained from the Silva reference database  revealed that highly divergent Selleck VX-680 lineages of the Planctomycetes phylum are represented in kelp surface biofilms (Figure 4). The kelp surface biofilm clone sequences appear to cluster within five major lineages that have been labeled as: “”RB1″” and “”RB2″” (defined in this study), Rhodopirellula, Planctomyces and “”OM190″”. The “”RB1″” and “”RB2″” lineages appear more closely related to the Rhodopirellula and Blastopirellula genera than to the Pirellula genus and were given their labels based find more on that (RB = Rhodopirellula/Blastopirellula). Yet the phylogenetic analyses do not
place them consistently with either of the genera. Sequence similarities of 86-90% to Rhodopirellula baltica and Blastopirellula marina indicate that they probably represent distinct phylogenetic lineages that could correspond to new genera according to conventional taxonomical practice. The “”RB1″” lineage was by far the most represented in all three clone libraries (Figure 4). Sequences that cluster within the “”RB2″”, Rhodopirellula and Planctomyces lineages were only represented in September and February, indicating a seasonal difference, while OM190 representatives were present at low numbers in all three clone libraries (Figure 4). Discussion To our knowledge, the kelp surface biofilms investigated in this Liothyronine Sodium study display the highest proportion of bacteria belonging to Planctomycetes reported in a natural bacterial community so far. This observation is consistent with earlier results from a DGGE based study on seasonal variation of Laminaria hyperborea
(kelp) surface biofilm communities . Other habitats where a high abundance of planctomycetes has been reported include seawater during a diatom bloom where planctomycetes related to Pirellula were detected attached to diatom cells and were among the dominant lineages in the bloom samples . In investigations of sandy sediments containing algal cells [24, 25], planctomycetes were also abundant, accounting for up to 20% of total cells, accompanied by Cytophaga/Flavobacteria. Gade and co-workers  used order-, genus- and strain specific FISH probes to detect planctomycetes in a range of EPZ-6438 solubility dmso aquatic habitats and recorded abundances up to 11% of total cells in some lakes. Peat bogs with Sphagnum moss have also been reported to harbor abundant (up to 13% of total bacterial numbers) planctomycete populations . Similarly to kelp surfaces, these environments are all highly influenced by photosynthetic eukaryotes. The studies mentioned above have all quantified planctomycetes using specific FISH probes.