Studies have shown that the approach enhances contrast and improv

Studies have shown that the approach enhances contrast and improves the ability to delineate boundaries [69]. Using this approach, simultaneous PET–MRI would not only provide co-registered PET and MR images but also enable the improvement of PET spatial resolution and contrast. Recent efforts have combined the technique with anatomical probabilistic atlases to yield PVE-corrected functional volumes of great accuracy, and the results have begun to be deployed in clinical studies [70]. The topics discussed above in 2 and 3 can also assist in improving the accuracy of quantitative PET by reducing motion error (and the associated increase in noise) and improving PET

reconstruction via anatomical priors. MR could be used for detecting and tracking motion due to respiration, the cardiac cycle and gross Selleckchem Sirolimus patient movement during the dynamic PET acquisition. Of course, by improving the PET reconstruction using the anatomical priors available from the MRI data, the PVE is reduced. A fundamental question surrounding

the potential future use and clinical application of dual PET–MRI contrast agents Selleckchem PD98059 is the vast difference in inherent sensitivities of the two techniques; PET studies require picomolar concentrations of the tracer, while the typical gadolinium MRI contrast agents require millimolar concentrations. However, these issues have not deterred the field from developing agents that can be detected simultaneously by each modality. To partially span the sensitivity gap, agents have been developed by tethering ADP ribosylation factor positron emitters to dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles which require only micromolar concentrations to achieve reasonable MR contrast. We now briefly highlight some recent illustrative examples of this approach. Torres et al. attached 64Cu to a bisphosphonate (bp) group that binds to the dextran surface [71] of an SPIO. The copper is chelated within dithiocarbamate

(dtc) to form [64Cu(dtcbp)2] which has great affinity for the SPIO’s dextran. Upon in vivo (sequential) PET–MRI imaging, this construct showed retention only in the popliteal and iliac lymph nodes. Another example of a 64Cu-MION probe was developed by Glaus et al. who coated an SPIO with polyethylene glycol (PEG) phospholipids. DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) was used to chelate 64Cu and then conjugated to the PEG [72]. The authors performed in vivo pharmacokinetic analysis with their construct in a murine model via microPET/CT and organ biodistribution studies. They concluded that the ability of the agent to have high initial blood retention with only moderate liver uptake makes it a potentially attractive contrast agent. They also noted that, in general, linking the PET agent to the nanoparticle provides improved circulation half-life [72]. Noting that the lymphatic system is a common route of metastases for cancer, Choi et al.

MDA level was significantly elevated in MSG (high dose) treated g

MDA level was significantly elevated in MSG (high dose) treated group as compared with normal control group, followed by significant increase in both MSG (medium and low dose treated groups) with respect to normal control group. Meanwhile, groups treated with MSG (high dose) co-administered with either vit E (High or low dose) afforded significant increase in MDA level when compared with normal

control group, while elicited significant decrease when compared with MSG treated groups either (high, med or low doses. The MSG (high dose) see more plus Se either at high or low dose afforded significant decrease in MDA level as compared with MSG-treated groups in three doses and these were the best ameliorative results that succeeded in decreasing MDA levels after treatment of rats with MSG co-administered with Se. On the other hand, the Se-treated groups either in high or low dose elicited non-significant increase in MDA levels as compared to control group. Meanwhile, vit E (high dose) elicited a significant decrease in MDA level as compared to normal control group, while vit E (high dose) elicited non-significant changes in MDA level as compared to control group (Table 1). Table 1 revealed that the administration of MSG in three doses (high, med and low dose) to rats induced highly significant

decrease in CAT activities as compared to control group. Meanwhile rats treated with either vi E (in low or high dose) and/or Se (in either low or high dose) exhibited non-significant changes in CAT activity when compared with control group. On the other hand, MSG (high dose) treated

group co-administered with vit E Tacrolimus cost (high or low dose) and MSG (high dose) followed by administration of Se either (high or low dose) elicited slight decrease in CAT activity as compared with normal control group, but afforded significant increase in CAT activities as compared with MSG-treated groups either in (high, med or low eltoprazine doses) as this effect was much less intense in groups treated with either MSG with vit E or Se. It was obvious from table that treatment of normal rats with MSG in three doses (high, med or low) elicited significant decrease in SOD activity as compared with control group, at the same time, the administration of vit E in either high or low doses afforded non-significant decrease in SOD activity as compared to normal control group. However, Se- treated group at low dose afforded significant decrease in SOD activity as compared to control group. Meanwhile, Se-treated animals at high dose exhibited non-significant decrease in SOD activity when compared with control group. At the meantime, MSG treated groups in (High, med and low doses) afforded significant increase in SOD as compared to normal control group; meanwhile they elicited significant decrease with respect to normal control group. Administration of MSG in three doses (high, med or low doses) induced significant decrease in GPx activity as compared to control group.

0 The use of MMTS in the case of cathepsin L was to prevent the

0. The use of MMTS in the case of cathepsin L was to prevent the oxidation of the sulfhydryl group of the enzyme during the purification steps. MMTS reacts with the sulfhydryl group, from which it is removed on cysteine addition during the assays Tyagi (1991). Amylase was pre-purified before been applied to the column. One mL of the supernatant from midgut homogenates were added to 50 μL of 400 mM TAPS buffer pH 8.0, 60 μL of glycogen (17 mg/mL) solution and 80 μL of 96% ethanol. After 5 min in ice, the suspension

was centrifuged at 9300g for 5 min at 4 °C. click here The supernatant (1.7 mL) was discarded and the pellet resuspended in 1.7 mL of 40% ethanol in TAPS buffer and centrifuged again after 5 min in ice. The new pellet was submitted to the same procedure as before. The resulting pellet was solubilized in 20 mM CAPS buffer pH 10.5, containing 100 mM benzamidine. After dialysis against 20 mM Tris–HCl buffer at pH 7.0, the dialysate was loaded onto the HiTrap column as described above. The fractions corresponding to the single activity peak of each enzyme obtained at this step were pooled and submitted to chromatography in a Superdex 200 10/30 column (Pharmacia) to resolve aminopeptidase and Superdex 75 HR 10/30 (Pharmacia) to isolate amylase, cathepsin L and α-glucosidase. The column was equilibrated

Epacadostat purchase with two volumes (50 mL) of the different buffers and the flow was 0.5 mL/min and fractions of 0.4 ml were collected. Gel filtration was performed in the same conditions as described for HiTrap Q XL chromatography. Molecular masses were calculated according to Andrews (1964) with the following proteins Obeticholic Acid cost as standards: β-amylase (200 kDa), BSA (66 kDa), ovalbumin (45 kDa), carbonic anhydrase (29 kDa) and cytochrome

C (12.4 kDa). The column was calibrated with “blue dextran” (2000 kDa). For ultrastructural analyses of the midgut and its content, six males of P. nigrispinus from the rearing colony were starved for 48 h and then fed ad libitum for 24 h with Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Then the predators were dissected in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer pH 7.4 containing 0.2 M sucrose. The midgut was divided into anterior, middle and posterior and the sections were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) and picric acid for two hours. The samples were post-fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide, then dehydrated in an ethanol series and embedded in LR White acrylic resin (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Ft Washington, USA), cut into ultrathin sections, stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate ( Reynolds, 1963) and, finally, examined in a Zeiss EM 109 electron microscopy. As all Hemiptera, P. nigrispinus has piercing-sucking mouth parts with which it attacks its prey. The salivary complex is composed of two salivary glands (MG in Fig. 1A) having an anterior (AL) and a posterior (PL) lobes and two cylindrical accessory glands (AG) ( Fig. 1A).

In the early spermatids ( Fig 7A) the cytoplasm symmetrically en

In the early spermatids ( Fig. 7A) the cytoplasm symmetrically encircles the nucleus, which displays diffuse homogenous chromatin and has a circular outline. The centriolar complex lies laterally to the nucleus and is anchored to the plasma membrane. The proximal centriole is anterior and perpendicular to the distal centriole. The distal centriole differentiates into the basal body and forms the single flagellum. The nucleus rotates toward the centriolar complex ( Fig. 7B) with nuclear rotation of 90° considered complete. A depression is newly formed in the nuclear outline at the level of the centriolar complex that penetrates it ( Fig. 7C). Simultaneous to nuclear rotation, the cytoplasm projects in the direction

of the initial segment of the flagellum forming the cytoplasmic canal and midpiece

( Fig. 7A–C). The midpiece contains the mitochondria, forming vesicles and cytoplasmic canal housing the initial segment of the flagellum ( Fig. selleck chemicals llc 7B and C). In the spermatozoon of O. kneri the spherical nucleus (about 1.5 μm in diameter) contains highly condensed homogeneous chromatin interspersed by electron-lucent areas, and is surrounded by a narrow strip of cytoplasm with no organelles ( Fig. 7D Akt inhibitor and E). In the nuclear outline that faces the midpiece there is a medial and moderately deep depression, the nuclear fossa ( Fig. 7D–F). The proximal centriole, initially anterior and perpendicular to distal one, attains an oblique acute angle to the distal centriole. The centrioles are covered by electron dense material and are fastened to one another, to the

nuclear envelope at the nuclear fossa, Chloroambucil and to the plasma membrane by stabilization fibrils. The proximal centriole and most of the distal centriole are inside the nuclear fossa ( Fig. 7F and G). The midpiece contains the mitochondria, abundant vesicles and the cytoplasmic canal in which lies the initial segment of the flagellum. The midpiece is slightly asymmetric due to the unequal distribution of mitochondria and vesicles. The mitochondria are elongated and mainly accumulated in the larger portion of the midpiece. Vesicles are elongated and mainly concentrated at the periphery and at the terminal regions of the midpiece ( Fig. 7H–K). The single flagellum contains a classic axoneme (9 + 2) ( Fig. 7L). Information on spermiogenesis in A. cataphractus is not available. In P. granulosus and R. dorbignyi, as in O. kneri, spermatogenesis is cystic and spermiogenesis is Type I. In the spermatozoa of A. cataphractus, P. granulosus and R. dorbignyi the nucleus contains highly condensed homogeneous chromatin and is surrounded by a narrow strip of cytoplasm with no organelles ( Fig. 8A, E, I). The nucleus is flattened at the tip and assumes an ovoid shape in P. granulosus (about 1.2 μm in height by 1.8 μm in width) vs. almost spherical in A. cataphractus (about 1.2 μm in height by 1.3 μm in width) and in R. dorbignyi (about 1.4 μm in height by 1.3 μm in width).

Mural nodules were defined as EUS-detectable, echogenic, protrudi

Mural nodules were defined as EUS-detectable, echogenic, protruding components in an ectatic (dilated) PD side branch. Branch duct IPMNs were distinguished from mucinous cystic

neoplasms of the pancreas by the presence of an obvious communication with the main PD. Surgery was deemed necessary when cytology was positive for malignancy, when mural nodules were larger than 5 mm in size or when a pancreatic mass was present. Patients with no immediate indication for surgery were followed for a minimum of 13 months (range 13-50 Akt inhibitors in clinical trials months), with repeat contrast-enhanced CT or MRI performed every 3 to 4 months. Patients who showed progressive dilation of the main and ectatic side branch pancreatic ducts, and/or development or enlargement of mural nodules or a pancreatic mass during surveillance, underwent EUS; those with confirmed mural nodules larger than 5 mm and those with pancreatic masses underwent surgery. The lavage cytology of patients identified

as having mural modules was performed by using a dual-lumen, 5F gauge coaxial catheter. Lavage selleck chemicals fluid was collected from the PD by injecting 1 mL of normal saline solution through the injection port while simultaneously aspirating 1 mL from the aspiration port: this procedure was repeated until at least 30 mL of PD lavage fluid was collected. After the procedure, the patients were kept hospitalized overnight to monitor them for signs and symptoms of post-ERCP pancreatitis, defined as new or worsened abdominal

pain associated with a 3 or more times the upper limit of normal elevation of serum amylase within 24 hours. The PD lavage fluid samples were centrifuged to create a pellet that was fixed in formaldehyde and prepared for histologic study, by both standard hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemistry for mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6). Two independent pathologists reviewed the histology: the H&E specimens were graded from classes I through V, with classes I through III being benign (normal to HSP90 adenoma with mild dysplasia), and classes IV and V being malignant (IV, neoplastic with moderate dysplasia; V, adenocarcinoma). Of 89 patients suspected of having side branch pancreatic duct IPMNs by CT and MRI, 44 (30 men, 14 women; mean age 66 years; only 27 symptomatic) were found to have mural nodules on EUS and proceeded to have ERP and PD lavage cytology. Eleven of 44 patients (25%) were positive for malignancy (class IV or V) and 33 of 44 (75%) were negative (classes I-III). Four patients reported “slight” abdominal pain post-procedure, and 5 had serum amylase levels more than 3 times the upper limit of normal. Pain resolved in the 4 symptomatic patients within 24 hours; elevated serum amylases normalized within 5 days.

Adjusted ORs for each exposure of interest were calculated with c

Adjusted ORs for each exposure of interest were calculated with conditional logistic regression adjusting for all exposures in addition to age, PPI use, and previous

gastrointestinal procedures. As calendar year, sex, and primary care practice were precisely PF-02341066 purchase matched on in the controls, it was not necessary to include them in the model. Comorbidity was added last, and its association with bleeding tested using a likelihood ratio test. The variance inflation factor (a measure of the increase in model variance due to correlation between variables) was calculated for each exposure of interest to assess the effect of correlation between variables. All exposures with a variance inflation factor >5 were excluded from the final conditional logistic regression model.18 The final model was then stratified into cases with a recording of peptic ulcer and those without. Sequential (or extra) population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated for each exposure, using the prevalence among the cases and the respective coefficients from the conditional logistic regression model.19 Sequential PAFs differ from the standard

adjusted PAFs that are usually presented. They are calculated CX5461 by estimating the additional proportion of cases attributable to each exposure, after removing the proportion of cases already attributed to the combined effect of all other exposures in the Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase model. The final model was then stratified into cases with a recording of peptic ulcer and those without. All analysis was performed using Stata software, version 12 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX). Previous studies of risk factor medications, such as NSAIDs,20 have been conducted in study populations that excluded patients with known risk factors for GIB.

To allow comparisons with these, we re-estimated the crude ORs for each of the risk factor medications after excluding any cases and their controls with nonmedication bleed risk factors. To assess the effect of the choice of the exposure exclusion time window before the bleed event on the effect of NSAIDs, we also re-estimated a model that included NSAID use up to 30 days before the index date. Two additional sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of potential under-reporting. First the analysis was restricted to those older than 65 years old and who were eligible for free prescriptions, to assess the effect of potential under-reporting of nonprescribed NSAID use. Secondly, multiple imputation was used to re-estimate the association with comorbidity by imputing missing values for alcohol and smoking status. Alcohol and smoking were categorised as binary exposures of excess alcohol or current smoking to fit the logistic regression imputation model.

Our final objective is to identify the specific geographic locati

Our final objective is to identify the specific geographic locations(s) in the TNMPA, if any, that were preferentially and recurrently used by belugas during the July aggregation period, and by doing find more so, provide a tool that could be used by regulators for assessing developments, setting terms and conditions for activities

that are proposed by industry, and evaluating changes in the location of preferred areas. The results we present are timely given recent renewed interest by the hydrocarbon industry in the Beaufort/Mackenzie region (AANDC, 2012) and Canada’s legal requirement to design and undertake monitoring programs in the TNMPA (Loseto et al., 2010, Canada Gazette, 2010 and Beaufort Sea Partnership, 2014). In addition, knowledge of beluga critical habitats and the ways in which they have used them in the past may also help us in the future to predict how belugas have or will respond to climate change or other factors that alter habitat (Laidre et al., 2008). Systematic aerial surveys were conducted over six summers between late June and early August, 1977–1985, and in late July 1992, to monitor the distribution and relative abundance of belugas in all four bays (subareas) of the Mackenzie Estuary (Niaqunnaq Bay, East Mackenzie Bay,

West Mackenzie Bay and Kugmallit Bay), including portions of the estuary that would eventually become the TNMPA in 2010. A total of 169 subarea surveys were attempted or completed during this period. The same

systematic transect lines were flown in all survey years in the 1970s and 1980s (Fig. 2), with transects spaced at intervals of 3.2 km, except in West Mackenzie Bay where they were spaced at 4.8 km. Nutlin-3a cost A strip-transect method was used (Caughley, 1977) in all surveys, with a strip width of 1.6 km (800 m per side), except in L-NAME HCl 1992 when the strip width was 400 m per side (Harwood et al., 1996). This provided survey coverage of 50% in the 1970s and 1980s (33% in West Mackenzie), and 29% and 15% in July 1992, respectively. Survey altitude was 305 m during all surveys, which was measured with the aircraft’s altimeter, and adjusted by the pilots during the surveys as necessary. Target ground speed was 200 km/h. Sighting coordinates were calculated using ArcGIS, using start and end-coordinates for each transect, and elapsed time. Mean ground speed for all surveys pooled was 188 km/h (SD 54.2). Primary search positions were equipped with bubble windows in 1984, 1985 and 1992, for enhanced visibility under the aircraft, close to the flight path. Surveys were flown in Cessna 185 on wheels (1970s) and in de Havilland Twin Otters (1980s and 1992). Survey conditions were assessed and recorded by observers at the beginning and end of each transect, and were summarized in the database for each subarea survey, by transect line. The usual flying time was 6–8 h per day. Observers rested during ferrying flights, refuelling stops, and when flying between transects.

3) w

3). selleck chemicals These sectors were created by dividing the CTV (for volumetric analysis) or PTV (for dosimetric analysis) into superior, midgland, and inferior sections, respectively (0.3 cm, 0.4 cm, and 0.3 cm of the base–apex length of the CTV

or PTV), which were then partitioned into posterior, anterior, or lateral portions of the gland. The motivation behind such a division was to identify whether there was a region-specific variability in the results, given that there may be different consequences to treatment from segmentation errors in different regions of the implantation volume [20] and [21]. For example, overcontouring the posterior region of the gland may increase the risk of severe rectal complications. A similar sector-based study was performed by Bice et al. (22) for a more localized dose–volume histogram analysis of postimplant dose distributions. The four volumetric comparison measures, which we described in our earlier reports (17) are summarized in Table 1 and illustrated in Fig. 4. For evaluation of the dose distribution, the following parameters were computed. The volume of the PTV receiving 100% or more of

the prescribed dose, was computed for the nine sectors of the PTV and the whole PTV. These values were calculated by the VariSeed software. To characterize extraprostatic dose, the external index (EI) (24), defined in Eq. 5, measures RG7422 ic50 the amount of tissue external to the PTV that receives doses of 150% or more of the prescribed dose. equation(5) EI150=(isoV150−V150)/V isoV150 is the total volume of the 150% isodose surface, V150 is the

volume of the PTV receiving 150% or more of the prescribed dose (the volume of the intersection between the isoV150 and PTV surfaces) and V is the volume of the PTV. Ideally, EI150 is zero. A 3D extension of the conformity index (CI) defined by Otto and Clark (25) is used, which measures BCKDHA both the undercoverage of the target as well as the overtreatment of the normal tissues. equation(6) CI100%=100×volume of region−(volume of region underdose+volume of healthy tissue dose)volume of region In Eq. 6, volume of region is the volume of the PTV (or one of its nine sectors), volume of region underdose is the volume of the PTV (or one of its nine sectors) that is receiving less than 100% of the prescribed dose, and volume of healthy tissue dose is the volume of the region outside the PTV (or one of its nine sectors) that is receiving 100% or more of the prescribed dose. A maximum conformity value of 1 shows perfect conformity of the 100% isodose to the region being observed. We would like to note that although the above-mentioned dose parameters are computed to evaluate the TES method, our planning process places quantitative constraints only on the whole prostate and whole PTV and CTV V100 and V150.

It can be debated that functional assays can produce misleading r

It can be debated that functional assays can produce misleading results when performed on cellular systems as these cells can become metabolically more this website active after cooling stresses, as demonstrated by the work of Jomha et al. [49]. These results were the first positive demonstration of liquidus-tracking application in tissues; however, it suffered from one significant limitation: actual human cartilage with up to 5 mm thickness would require significantly longer times for equilibration

of the CPA than cartilage discs with 0.7 mm thickness. The equilibration time would be even longer when the cartilage-on-bone grafts are to be cryopreserved using this method as cartilage on bone has only half of the surface available for CPA diffusion compared to a cartilage disc. Using one type of CPA during stepwise cooling for vitrification may be possible in thinner tissues as shown by Pegg but would result in excessive CPA toxicity in larger tissues because of the prolonged exposure to very high concentrations of the CPA during the final Doxorubicin mouse stages. This is complicated by the fact that for most CPAs, cytotoxicity increases nonlinearly with concentration [26]. Therefore, to decrease concentration-dependent CPA cytotoxicity during cooling steps, another approach is to use combinations of CPAs each at a lower final concentration so that individually the CPAs are

less toxic to the cells but the overall final concentration is sufficient to vitrify [20], [31] and [61]. The idea of cryoprotectant toxicity neutralization using certain amides as structural analogues of cryoprotectants Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin was discussed previously by Fahy [28]. Recently,

Jomha et al. showed positive interactions between commonly used CPAs [6] and [53]. This indicates that a lowered cumulative CPA toxicity occurs in multiple-CPA solutions compared to single-CPA solutions of similar total concentration [53]. The same group showed that multiple-CPA solutions can be beneficial by increasing the glass stability above that of an equivalent molar single-CPA solution [108]. These conclusions were indirectly supported by Brockbank et al. (2010) [17] who recorded good chondrocyte recovery after vitrification of pig articular cartilage using different combinations of Me2SO, formamide and propylene glycol (VS55 and VS83 both loaded at 4 °C followed by cooling to −135 °C at various cooling rates). Cartilage thickness remained an issue as the results showed increasingly lower recovery with thicker cartilage. Again in this study the cartilage had been removed from its bone base prior to vitrification. To address three main obstacles to cartilage cryopreservation, including CPA permeation to prevent ice formation within the matrix, CPA toxicity and CPA vitrifiability, vitrification with multi-CPA solutions using stepwise cooling is perhaps the most viable approach.

PIT dependency was not clear For biofilms of C dubliniensis, th

PIT dependency was not clear. For biofilms of C. dubliniensis, the analysis of variance showed significant interaction of PIT and Cur concentration (p = 0.001) Volasertib purchase in the P+L+ groups irradiated for 4 min. On the other hand, the interaction was not significant in the P+L+ groups irradiated for

8 min, with a significant effect of PIT (p < 0.001) and Cur concentration (p < 0.001). Tukey's test was applied to study the cases, and the results are presented in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. The groups illuminated for 4 min were concentration-dependent for the extreme values (40 and 20 μM). No PIT dependency was clearly observed. Whereas, groups illuminated for 8 min were concentration and PIT-dependent. For all the microorganisms, CSLM was used to investigate Cur penetration into the deepness of the biofilms. Images of Candida spp. biofilms were captured by fluorescence mode ( Fig. 7 and Fig. 8) following incubation of the biofilms with Cur 40 μM for 5 min ( Fig. 7A, C and E) and 20 min (Figs. 7B, D, F and 8). In spite of the light green fluorescence observed after a 5-min incubation ( Fig. 7A, C and E), brighter fluorescence was observed following a 20-min incubation ( Fig. 7B, D and F). Fig. 8 presents cross sections and side views of C. albicans biofilms

after 5 and 20 min of incubation with Cur 40 μM ( Fig. 8B and C, respectively). Fig. 8A presents an image of the transmittance mode applied to C. albicans biofilm before the incubation with curcumin, due to the absence of fluorescence signal from Candida biofilms without curcumin. On the side views of the same biofilm ( Fig. 8B and C), it is possible to determine the biofilm thickness (yellow lines) and curcumin penetration through the biofilm (red lines). Moreover, it is possible to observe the lack of sensitised cells in the deepest portions (yellow arrow) when compared to the outermost layers with a brighter fluorescence (red arrow). Among other factors, the effectiveness of antimicrobial PDT depends on the pre-irradiation time (PIT), which is the period required by the PS to remain in contact with the microorganisms before illumination. It seems that the PIT

sufficient to promote effective microbial killing depends on the properties of the PS. For example, the porphyrins, the phenothiazine and the aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPc)26, 34 and 35 require shorter PITs when compared with tetrasulfonated Amino acid aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPcS4).35 In contrast, other studies have stated that PIT had no significant importance on the effectiveness of PDT, and demonstrated that a longer PIT did not increase the reduction in cell viability.26, 33 and 34 In addition, the species of the microorganism studied is an important factor influencing PDT effectiveness.39, 45 and 51 Due to the vast diversity of microorganisms, a PS with distinct physicochemical properties may be required. For these reasons, different types of PS have been proposed for antimicrobial PDT.