The magnified image of the squared region in Figure 2b is also de

The magnified image of the squared region in Figure 2b is also demonstrated in Figure 2c, and the multiwalled structures

of CNTs at the joints twist and some amorphous structures adhering to the surface are observed. While the compression temperature increases to 400°C, the CNTs are twined into a continuous film which is consistent with the observation in SEM analysis, as exhibited in Figure 2d. Figure 1 SEM images of the morphological variations for the as-sprayed and thermally compressed CNTFs. SEM images of (a) as-sprayed CNTF (b) Selleckchem GSK2245840 under the compression force of 100 N at 200°C for 50 min and (c) under the compression force of 100 N at 400°C for 50 min. Figure 2 TEM images of the as-sprayed and thermally compressed CNTs. The high-resolution images of (a) the as-sprayed CNTs and (b) the CNTs after the thermal compression with the compression force of 100 N at 200°C for 50 min. (c) The magnified image of the squared region in (b) and (d) the CNTF after the thermal compression with the compression force of 100 N at 400°C for 50 min. The main features buy Linsitinib of CNTFs in the Raman spectra are the disorder-induced D peak at Raman shift of 1,350 cm-1, and the other one is the G peak at Raman shift of 1,580 cm-1 corresponding to the covalent sp2 bonds of graphite structures, as exhibited in Figure 3. To understand the crystallinity of CNT in the CNTF after the thermal compression, the intensity

ratios of D peak to G peak, I D/I G, are extracted from Figure 3. Then, the ratios of I D/I G are about 1.79, 1.72, and 1.65 for the as-prayed CNTF and those compressed at 200°C

and 400°C, accordingly. Such a high ratio of I D/I G for the as-sprayed CNTF represents the existence of defects induced by the acid treatment. Dichloromethane dehalogenase After the thermal compression at 200°C and 400°C, the ratio of I D/I G slightly decreases, which may be attributed to the thermal annealing, and some defects on the CNTs are repaired during the compression. Furthermore, a minor band at around 1,610 cm-1 assigned as the D′ band is evidently observed for the as-sprayed CNTF. This band is responsible for the existence of functional groups on the CNTs after the acid treatment [14], which the CNT is treated with a mixture of concentrated H2SO4 and HNO3 in our case. However, the intensity of the D′ band decreases for the CNTF compressed at 200°C, and this band even disappears while the CNTF is compressed at 400°C. The sheet resistance PD0332991 cost versus the compression temperature for the 110-nm-thick and 230-nm-thick CNTFs with the compression force of 100 N for 50 min is shown in Figure 4, accordingly. It is evident that the sheet resistance decreases with the increasing of the compression temperature for these two thicknesses of CNTFs. For example, the sheet resistance decreases from 17 to 0.9 k Ω/sq as the compression temperature increases from 25°C to 400°C for the 230-nm-thick CNTFs.

For example, if marketing

For example, if marketing MX69 manufacturer of anthropomorphized representations increases caring towards species A, this might be at the expense of conservation actions in support of the ecologically important, but unmarketed and thus uncared for, species B (see e.g. Smith et al. 2012). In addition, caring for an individual or species can compromise overall species and/or habitat conservation objectives. Take for example the behavioral outcomes following the release of the animated film Finding Nemo. Using anthropomorphism, viewers grew to care for the marine characters, especially Nemo, a juvenile

clownfish (from the genus Amphiprion). After the movie’s release, there was a reported increase in the demand for clownfish in the aquarium selleck chemicals trade industry

(Harley 2005). This has led to overfishing on the reefs (Yong et al. 2011). In this case, the care-giving behavioral outcome has led to a histone deacetylase activity negative conservation outcome. Anthropomorphism can also backfire by setting up expectations of human-like social behavior that non-human species cannot satisfy. For example, Japanese tourists at monkey feeding parks understand the feeding interaction as akin to Japanese gift-giving traditions (Knight 2005). However, the tourists are often upset that monkeys also steal food and fight with one another to access it, which they understand as a rude violation of the meaning of the feeding interaction. In another example, northern Portuguese farmers address curses to wild boar that raid their fields (Galhano-Alves 2004). Engaging wild boar in a social practice (ritual, audible cursing) suggests that the wild boar are considered to be persons violating a social pact (cf. Theodossopoulos 2005). Finally, in Japan non-native raccoons (Procyon lotor) are now a serious source of human-wildlife conflict in both residential and agricultural lands, as well as historical and biologically important sites. Hundreds of raccoons were imported into Japan following a smash hit animated cartoon

series Rascal Raccoon during the late 1970s to early 1980s. The popular cartoon series anthropomorphized the North American raccoon as harmless, cute and humorous, and a faithful human companion with enviable hygiene and that cared for children. Japanese households with raccoons, however, experiencing the Baricitinib natural behavior of Procyon lotor eventually released their pet raccoons into the wild, precipitating the need for a costly ongoing nation-wide intensive raccoon eradication program (Ikeda et al. 2004). Holding other species to social norms that they cannot fulfill can create conservation problems or could hinder support for conservation actions on their behalf. Finally, being human-like is not necessarily a good thing, and non-human species sometimes acquire negative social stereotypes. For example in Chile a naturalized archaeophyte tree called the espino (Acacia caven) can be anthropomorphized as stoic and plebian (Root-Bernstein 2012).

In this work, the reactions of N-phosphoryl amino acids (Containe

In this work, the reactions of N-phosphoryl amino acids (Contained old amino acids) and mixture of four Crenolanib price nucleosides (A, G, C, U) in aqueous solution were investigated by UPLC-HRMS and 31P NMR. It was found that the amounts and kinds of dinucleotides formed by the reaction depended on specific N-phosphoryl amino acids and nucleosides. For example, N- (O, O-diisopropyl) phosphoryl alanine prefered to form CpG (or GpC). However, UpA was very difficult to be formed for most of the N-phosphoryl

amino acids. The results provide some possible clue to the origin and chemical evolution of genetic code in the prebiotic process. Zhou W. H., Ju Y., Zhao Y. F. (1996). Origins Life Evol. Biosphere, 26:547. Zhao Y. F., Cao P. S. (1994). J. Biol. Phys., 20:283. Zhao Y. F., Cao P. S. (1999). Pure Appl. Chem., 71:1163. Zhao Y. F., Hu J. J., Ju Y. (2000). Chin. Chem. Lett., 11 (5):407. E-mail: liuhx@sz.​tsinghua.​edu.​cn A Conformational Effect of the DNA Double Helix Isotopy: Key to the Molecular–Biological Evolution of Nature Andrey A. Ivanov1, Vyacheslav S. Sevastianov1, Vyacheslav V. Perfilov2, Aleksander G. Letuchev2 1Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical chemistry; 2Moscow physical-engineering

University As it has been reported (Ivanov and Galimov, 2007, Ivanov and Sevastyanov, 2006, Ivanov, 2007, Ivanov, 2007 and Ivanov, 2003), the DNA isotope does make an impact on its own double helical conformational system status according to the appropriate PF-02341066 in vivo molecular biology tests. An essential meaning of the regularity revealed derives from a known interdependence BAY 73-4506 mw between the DNA conformational status and the expression of genes (Zhizhina, et al. 2001). In the light of the latter, the DNA double-helix system is nothing but a multidimensional and biologically universal multifunctional interface possessing a capability to record, transmit, store and transform both chemical and physical signals originated by the surrounding atomic/molecular environment.

Apparently, this is a kind of linker between the living objects and inorganic matter; an understanding of that would make clear a mechanism of control over the genome expression during FAD the adaptation towards a renovated environmental conditions. These adaptation moves are to be fixed up in conformation with a subsequent transmission and transformation due to the DNA isotopy specificity. A meaning of the effect revealed is all about the following. A non-proportional distribution of the isotropically different nucleotide forms within a pair of the double-helix chains caused by an inequality of their physical/chemical properties leads to the isotopy-related dependence of a whole system, i.e. an isotopy-conformation dependence. This dependence is found to be a true regularity being proven in experiments.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 1998, 2:195–202 PubMed 10 van Nieuwenh

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 1998, 2:195–202.PubMed 10. van Nieuwenhoven MA, Brouns F, Kovacs EM: The effect of two sports drinks and water on GI complaints

and performance during an 18-km run. Int J Sports Med 2005, 26:281–285.PubMedCrossRef 11. Bosch AN, Dennis SC, Noakes TD: Influence of carbohydrate ingestion on fuel substrate turnover and oxidation during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol 1994, 76:2364–2372.PubMed 12. Karelis AD, Smith JW, Passe DH, Peronnet F: Carbohydrate administration and exercise performance: what are the potential mechanisms involved? Sports Med 2010, 40:747–763.PubMedCrossRef 13. Shi X, Summers RW, Schedl HP, Flanagan SW, Chang R, Gisolfi CV: Effects of carbohydrate type and concentration and solution osmolality on water absorption. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995, 27:1607–1615.PubMed 14. Jeukendrup AE: Carbohydrate intake during exercise Epigenetic Reader Domain inhibitor and performance. Nutrition 2004, 20:669–677.PubMedCrossRef 15. Jeukendrup AE, Moseley L, Mainwaring GI, Samuels S, Perry S, Mann CH: Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during ultraendurance exercise. J Appl Physiol 2006, 100:1134–1141.PubMedCrossRef 16. Murray

B: The role of salt and glucose replacement drinks in the marathon. Sports Med 2007, 37:358–360.PubMedCrossRef 17. Adopo E, Peronnet F, Massicotte D, Brisson GR, Hillaire-Marcel C: Respective oxidation of exogenous glucose and fructose given in the same drink during exercise. J Appl ZD1839 molecular weight Physiol 1994, 76:1014–1019.PubMed 18. Jandrain BJ, Pallikarakis N, Normand S, Pirnay F, Lacroix M, Mosora F, Pachiaudi C, Gautier JF, Scheen AJ, Riou JP, et al.: Fructose utilization during exercise in men: rapid conversion of ingested fructose to circulating glucose. J Appl Physiol 1993, 74:2146–2154.PubMedCrossRef 19. Ahlborg G, Bjorkman O: Splanchnic

and muscle fructose metabolism during and after exercise. J Appl Physiol 1990, 69:1244–1251.PubMed 20. Decombaz J, Jentjens R, Ith M, Scheurer E, Buehler T, Jeukendrup A, Boesch C: Fructose and galactose enhance postexercise human liver glycogen synthesis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011, 43:1964–1971.PubMed 21. Kovacs EM, Stegen J, Brouns F: Effect of caffeinated this website drinks on substrate metabolism, MX69 caffeine excretion, and performance. J Appl Physiol 1998, 85:709–715.PubMed 22. Yeo SE, Jentjens RL, Wallis GA, Jeukendrup AE: Caffeine increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during exercise. J Appl Physiol 2005, 99:844–850.PubMedCrossRef 23. Kalmar JM, Cafarelli E: Caffeine: a valuable tool to study central fatigue in humans? Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2004, 32:143–147.PubMedCrossRef 24. Blomstrand E, Newsholme EA: Effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on the exercise-induced change in aromatic amino acid concentration in human muscle. Acta Physiol Scand 1992, 146:293–298.PubMedCrossRef 25.

1993 17 Yorke ED, Jackson A, Rosenzweig KE, Braban L, Leibel SA

1993. 17. Yorke ED, Jackson A, Rosenzweig KE, Braban L, Leibel SA, Ling CC: Correlation

of dosimetric factors and radiation pneumonitis for non-small-cell lung AZD1390 cancer patients in a recently completed dose escalation study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005, 63:672–682.PubMedCrossRef 18. Graham MV, Purdy JA, Emami B, Harms W, Bosch W, Lockett MA, Perez CA: Clinical dose-volume histogram analysis for pneumonitis after 3D treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999, 45:323–329.PubMed 19. Quanjer PH, Tammeling GJ, Cotes JE, Pedersen OF, Peslin R, Yernault JC: Lung volumes and forced ventilatory flows Report Working Party Standardization of Lung Function Tests, European Community for Steel and Coal Official Statement of the European Respiratory Society. Eur BLZ945 research buy Respir J 1993,6(Suppl 16):5–40. 20. Prediletto R, Paoletti P, Fornai E, Perissinotto A, Petruzzelli S, PARP phosphorylation Formichi B, Ruschi

S, Palla A, Giannella-Neto A, Giuntini C: Natural course of treated pulmonary embolism Evaluation by perfusion lung scintigraphy, gas exchange, and chest roentgenogram. Chest 1990,97(3):554–61.PubMedCrossRef 21. COMMON TOXICITY CRITERIA (CTC) [http://​ctep.​cancer.​gov/​protocolDevelopm​ent/​electronic_​applications/​docs/​ctcv20_​4-30-992.​pdf] 22. LENT SOMA: Tables Radiother Oncol. 1995, 35:17–60.CrossRef 23. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE): Version 4.02. [http://​evs.​nci.​nih.​gov/​ftp1/​CTCAE/​CTCAE_​4.​02_​2009-09-15_​QuickReference_​8.​5x11.​pdf] 24. Nishioka A, Ogawa Y, Hamada N, Terashima M, Inomata T, Yoshida S: Analysis of radiation pneumonitis and radiation-induced lung fibrosis in breast cancer patients after breast conservation treatment. Oncol Rep 1999, 6:513–517.PubMed 25. Wennberg B, Gagliardi G, Sundbom L, Svane G, Lind P: Early response of lung in breast cancer irradiation: radiologic density changes measured by ct and symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002, 52:1196–1206.PubMedCrossRef aminophylline 26. Fisher J, Scott C, Stevens R, Marconi B, Champion

L, Freedman GM, Asrari F, Pilepich MV, Gagnon JD, Wong G: Randomized phase III study comparing Best Supportive Care to Biafine as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity for women undergoing breast irradiation: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97–13. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000,48(5):1307–10.PubMedCrossRef 27. Lind PA, Rosfors S, Wennberg B, Glas U, Bevegård S, Fornander T: Pulmonary function following adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for breast cancer and the issue of three-dimensional treatment planning. Radiother Oncol 1998, 49:245–54.PubMedCrossRef 28. Dörr W, Bertmann S, Herrmann T: Radiation induced lung reactions in breast cancer therapy. Modulating factors and consequential effects. Strahlenther Onkol 2005,181(9):567–73.PubMedCrossRef 29.

Coverage The coverage of reads mapped to a reference genome was a

Coverage The coverage of reads mapped to a reference genome was assessed using BEDTools ( https://​github.​com/​arq5x/​bedtools2) and the genomeCoverageBed function. Plasmid analysis A query sequence

of 9299 bases, positions 3036 to 12334 from Lens plasmid pLPL (Accession: NC_006366) was used to search blast databases using blastall (blastn program) from NCBI. Overview of genome similarity BRIG (BLAST Ring Image Generator) was used to produce an image to illustrate the similarity between the Corby genome and one sequence from each of the BAPS clusters (except for Clusters 1 and 2 where two sequences were included, one from each clade on the phylogenetic tree produced from SBT data). Similarity was determined using BLASTn. Gene content analysis A novel method was used to cluster the genes from Selleck Androgen Receptor Antagonist all the genomes in the study. This method we have termed CoreAccess is AG-881 in vivo reported in full in a paper currently under preparation. Briefly, the protein sequences of all genes from the genomes were

used as input for the program cd-hit [49]. These genes were either those already annotated in the sequence files of the GenBank genomes or those predicted using Glimmer3 [50] trained using the Corby sequence genes. The proteins were clustered using cd-hit using a hierarchical approach, first clustering at a high percentage cut-off and then stepwise lowering of the cut-off and clustering the clusters from the previous step. The final cut-off was 80%. This hierarchical approach overcomes errors that can arise in single PRIMA-1MET order step clustering as described on the cd-hit website ( The hypothesis underlying this methodology is that the clusters contain homologous proteins from the different genomes and as such represent groups of proteins with the same or similar function from the different genomes. In order to be able to search the clusters and find for example genes shared by all the genomes, the information about the clusters

in the cd-hit output was collated into a sqlite3 database using tools within the Core Access suite. Phylogenetic Tree construction Baf-A1 purchase Maximum likelihood tree phylogenetic trees were produced from mutiple fasta files by the MEGA software package [51] using the Tamura-Nei model, and testing the phylogeny with 500 bootstrap replicates. To construct a tree from the gene content analysis, the database generated by CoreAccess was queried using SQL so that the presence/absence of a protein representative from each strain in every cluster was recorded to produce a phylip compatible discrete state (binary 0/1) character matrix. The seqboot program for the Phylip package [52] was used to create 100 bootstrap replicates using the Discrete Morphology data type and Non-interleaved as parameters.

Mycologia 97:1365–1378PubMedCrossRef Jaklitsch WM, Komon M, Kubic

Mycologia 97:1365–1378PubMedCrossRef Jaklitsch WM, Komon M, Kubicek CP, Druzhinina IS (2006a) Hypocrea crystalligena sp. nov., a common European species with a white-spored Trichoderma anamorph. Mycologia 98:499–513PubMedCrossRef Jaklitsch WM, Samuels GJ, Dodd SL, Lu B-S, Druzhinina IS (2006b) Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia. Stud Mycol 56:135–177PubMedCrossRef Jaklitsch WM, Põldmaa

K, Samuels GJ (2008a) Reconsideration of Protocrea (Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae). Mycologia 100:962–984PubMedCrossRef Jaklitsch WM, Gruber S, Voglmayr H (2008b) XL184 cost Hypocrea seppoi, a new stipitate species from Finland. Karstenia 48:1–11PubMed Kindermann J, El-Ayouti Y, Samuels GJ, Kubicek JQEZ5 cost CP (1998) Phylogeny of

the genus Trichoderma based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 of the rDNA cluster. Fungal Genet Biol 24:298–309PubMedCrossRef Klok P (2006) A rare little cushion: Hypocrea argillacea Phill. & Plowr. Coolia 49:70–71 Kraus GF, Druzhinina I, Gams W, Bisset J, Zafari D, Szakacs G, Koptchinski A, Prillinger H, Zare R, Kubicek CP (2004) Trichoderma brevicompactum sp. nov. Mycologia 96:1059–1073PubMedCrossRef Kullnig-Gradinger CM, Szakacs G, Kubicek CP (2002) Phylogeny and evolution of the genus Trichoderma: a multigene approach. Mycol Res 106:757–767CrossRef Kvas M, Marasas WFO, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Steenkamp ET (2009) Diversity and evolution of Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex. Fungal Divers 34:1–21 Lieckfeldt E, Samuels GJ, Börner T, Gams W (1998) Trichoderma koningii: neotypification and Hypocrea teleomorph. Can J Bot 76:1507–1522 Lu B, Druzhinina IS, Fallah P, Chaverri P, Gradinger C, Kubicek CP, Samuels GJ (2004) Hypocrea/Trichoderma

species with pachybasium-like conidiophores: teleomorphs for T. minutisporum and T. polysporum and their newly discovered relatives. Mycologia 96:310–342PubMedCrossRef Dichloromethane dehalogenase Matruchot L (1893) Sur un EVP4593 molecular weight Gliocladium nouveau. Bull Trimest Soc Mycol Fr 9:249–252 Matsushima T (1975) Icones Microfungorum a Matsushima Lectorum. Kobe, Japan. 209 pp., 415 plates Matsushima T (1989) Matsushima mycological memoirs (no. 651) 6:21 Medardi G (1999) Studio sul genere Hypocrea Fries. Riv Micol AMB 42:327–338 Migula W (1913) Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Deutsch-Österreich und der Schweiz. Band III. Pilze. 3. Teil. 1. und 2. Abteilung. Berlin. Gera. 1404 pp Moravec Z (1956) Arachnocrea, un genre nouveau de la famille des Nectriaceae. Bull Trimest Soc Mycol Fr 72:160–166 Morquer R, Viala G, Rouch J, Fayret J, Bergé G (1963) Contribution à l’étude morphogénique du genre Gliocladium. Bull Trimest Soc Mycol Fr 79:137–241 Müller E, Aebi B, Webster J (1972) Culture studies on Hypocrea and Trichoderma V. Hypocrea psychrophila sp. nov.

2010b) To explore

2010b). To explore Eltanexor purchase this apparent discrepancy, we compared incidence rates of surgically treated idiopathic RRD among manual workers, non-manual workers and full-time housewives living in Tuscany, Italy. Methods Setting and study design Using hospital discharge records and census data, we calculated and compared age- and sex-specific incidence rates of surgically treated idiopathic RRD experienced by manual workers, non-manual workers

and full-time housewives in the general population of Tuscany (3.5 million inhabitants), during the period 1997–2009. All public and private hospitals in Italy are obliged to produce coded discharge records for all treatment episodes (including day cases), and these are then collated in databases according to the

patient’s region of residence (irrespective of where the hospital is located). In addition to the standard data collected elsewhere, the discharge records of hospitals within the Selleck PD0332991 administrative Smad inhibitor Region of Tuscany (Regione Toscana) include coded information on the patient’s current broad category of employment (see Table 1), allowing them to be classified as manual workers (i.e., anyone whose job involves some form of manual task other than office work), non-manual workers and full-time housewives. Table 1 Distribution of job categories among surgically treated cases of idiopathic RRD (aged 25–59 years) with known current broad category of employment in Tuscany   Men (n = 1,142) Women (n = 804) Overall (n = 1,946) Non-manual workers 378 179 557  Managers 35 3 38  Self-employed professionals 105 17 122  Entrepreneurs 25 4 29  Clerical workers 207 152 359  Associate professionals 6 3 9 Manual workers 764 313 1,077  Skilled/unskilled manual workers 172 55 227  Service workers 320 193 513  Home-based workers 2 4 6  Self-employed workers 270 61 331 Housewives – 312 312 For the present study, we abstracted the records

of all patients resident in Tuscany with a discharge record issued by any Italian hospital during Selleckchem Forskolin the study period giving a principal diagnosis of RRD (ICD-9 code 361.0 through 361.07, and 361.9) coupled with retinal surgery (Diagnosis Related Group code 36). We excluded cases of non-rhegmatogenous RD classified as serous (361.2) or “other” (361.8; including tractional, 361.81). However, we retained patients with diabetes, since this condition is not generally thought to be a risk factor for RRD (as distinct from tractional RD or combined tractional-rhegmatogenous RD). Where a patient was hospitalized for RRD more than once during the study period, only the first episode was abstracted. However, we were not able to identify patients with a history of surgically treated RRD prior to the study period. On the basis of the information archived in the hospital discharge records, we excluded RRD that presented after a recent accident or injury, and patients with an earlier history of cataract surgery, or coexisting aphakia.

Nano Lett 2007, 7:965–969 CrossRef 25 Schmitt AL, Bierman MJ, Sc

Nano Lett 2007, 7:965–969.CrossRef 25. Schmitt AL, Bierman MJ, Schmeisser D, Himpsel FJ, Jin S: Synthesis and properties of single-crystal FeSi nanowires. Nano Lett 2006, 6:1617–1621.CrossRef 26. Seo K, Lee S, Yoon H, In J, Varadwaj KSK, Jo Y, Jung MH, Kim J, Kim B: Composition-tuned Co(n)Si nanowires: location-selective simultaneous growth along temperature gradient. ACS Nano 2009, 3:1145–1150.CrossRef 27. Liang YH, Yu SY, Hsin CL, Huang CW, Wu WW: Growth of single-crystalline cobalt silicide nanowires with excellent physical properties. J Appl Phys 2011, 110:074302.CrossRef

28. Tsai CI, Yeh PH, Wang CY, Wu PRI-724 research buy HW, Chen US, Lu MY, Wu WW, Chen LJ, Wang ZL: Cobalt silicide nanostructures: synthesis, electron transport, and field emission properties. Cryst Growth Des 2009, 9:4514–4518.CrossRef 29. Hsin CL, Yu SY, Wu WW: Cobalt silicide nanocables grown on Co films: synthesis and physical properties. Nanotechnology 2010, 21:485602.CrossRef

30. Schmitt AL, Lei Z, Schmeiβer D, Himpsel FJ, Jin S: Metallic single-crystal CoSi nanowires via chemical vapor deposition of single-source precursor. J Phys Chem B 2006, 110:18142–18146.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions CML and KCL conceived the study and designed MRT67307 research buy the research. CML conducted the experiments. CML, HFH, and KCL wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background At low temperatures (T), disorder and electron–electron (e-e) interactions may govern the transport SPTBN5 properties of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in which electrons are confined in a layer of the nanoscale, leading to the appearance of new regimes of transport behavior [1]. In the presence of sufficiently strong disorder, a 2DES may behave as an insulator in the sense that its longitudinal resistivity (ρ xx) decreases with increasing T[2]. It is useful to probe the intriguing features of this 2D insulating

state by applying a magnetic field (B) perpendicular to the plane of a 2DES [2–4]. In particular, the direct transition from an insulator (I) to a high filling factor (v ≥ 3) quantum Hall (QH) state continues to attract a great deal of both experimental [5–13] and theoretical [14–16] interest. This is motivated by the relevance of this transition to the zero-field metal-insulator transition [17] and by the selleckchem insight it provides on the evolution of extended states at low magnetic fields. It has already been shown that the nature of the background disorder, in coexistence with e-e interactions, may influence the zero-field metallic behavior [18] and the QH plateau-plateau transitions [19, 20]. However, studies focused on the direct I-QH transitions in a 2DES with different kinds of disorder are still lacking. Previously, we have studied a 2DES containing self-assembled InAs quantum dots [11], providing a predominantly short-range character to the disorder.

Astron Astrophys 510:A4 doi:10 ​1051/​0004-6361/​200913208 Cross

Astron Astrophys 510:A4. doi:10.​1051/​0004-6361/​200913208 CrossRef Rivera E, Laughlin G, Butler P, Vogt S, Haghighipour N, Meschiari S (2010) The Lick–Carnegie exoplanet survey: a Uranus–Mass fourth planet for GJ 876 in an extrasolar laplace configuration. Astrophys J 719:890–899CrossRef Saffe C, Gomez M, Chavero C (2005) On the ages of exoplanet host stars. Astron Astrophys 443:609–626CrossRef Saffe C, Gomez M, Pintado O, Gonzalez E (2008) Spectroscopic metallicities of Vega-like stars.

Astron Astrophys 470:297–305CrossRef Sándor Zs, Kley W, Klagyivik P (2007) Stability and formation of the resonant system HD 73526. Astron Astrophys 472:981–992CrossRef Sándor Zs, Sepantronium mw Kley W (2010) Formation of the resonant system HD 60532. Astron Astrophys 517:A31. doi:10.​1051/​0004-6361/​201014072 CrossRef Short D, Welsh WF, Orosz JA, Windmiller G (2008) Orbital dynamics of a possible second planet In: HD 17156. arXiv:​0803.​2935 Snellgrove MD, Papaloizou JCB, Nelson RP (2001) On disc driven inward migration of resonantly coupled planets with application to the system around GJ876. Astron Astrophys 374:1092–1099CrossRef Sousa SG, Santos NC, Mayor M et al (2008) Spectroscopic parameters for 451 stars in the

HARPS GTO planet search program. Stellar [Fe/H] and the frequency of exo-Neptunes. Astron Astrophys 487:373–381CrossRef Tanaka H, Takeuchi T, Ward WR (2002) Three-dimensional interaction between a planet and an this website isothermal learn more gaseous nearly disk. I. Corotation and lindblad torques and planet migration. Astrophys J 565:1257–1274CrossRef Thommes

EW, Lissauer JJ (2003) Resonant inclination excitation of migrating giant planets. Astrophys J 597:566–580CrossRef Tinney Ch, Butler P, Marcy G, Jones H, Laughlin G, Carter B, Bailey J, O’Toole S (2006) The 2:1 resonant exoplanetary system orbiting HD 73526. Astrophys J 647:594–599CrossRef Todorov K, Luhman KL, McLeod KK (2010) Discovery of a planetary-mass companion to a brown dwarf in Taurus. Astrophys J 714:L84–L88CrossRef Trilling DE, Bryden G, Beichman CA et al (2008) Debris disks around sun-like stars. Astrophys J 674:1086–1105CrossRef Udry S, Mayor M, Naef D et al (2002) The CORALIE survey for southern extra-solar planets. VIII. The very low-mass companions of HD 141937, HD 162020, HD 168443 and HD 202206: brown dwarfs or “superplanets”?. Astron Astrophys 390:267–279CrossRef Udry S et al (2007) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XI. Super-Earths (5 and 8 M) in a 3-planet system. Astron Astrophys 469:L43–L47CrossRef Veras D, Ford EB (2012) Identifying non-resonant Kepler planetary systems. Mon Not R Astron Soc 420:L23–L27CrossRef von Braun K, Boyajian TS, Brummelaar TA et al (2011) The 55 Cancri system: fundamental stellar parameters, habitable zone planet, and super-earth diameter. In: Baglin A, Deleuil M, Michel E, Moutou C (eds) Conference proceedings of the 2nd CoRoT symposium.