360 97%) Furthermore, the resistance of the

360.97%). Furthermore, the resistance of the selleckchem epithelial cells was significantly increased after salmeterol deposition from both single and combination products.

ConclusionsOur data demonstrate that salmeterol may decrease the permeability of epithelial cells, resulting in slower fluticasone transport across Calu-3 epithelial monolayers. The subsequent increased residence time of fluticasone in the airways could prolong its anti-inflammatory effects.”
“In Arunachal Pradesh and other sub-Himalayan areas of India, accidental consumption of Senecio plants by yaks is often fatal as the plant contains toxic alkaloids like Seneciophylline. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the

pro-oxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of Senecio chrysanthemoides (S-EtOH). S-EtOH impaired viability

in macrophages, buy Vorinostat the IC50 being 13.8 +/- 1.11 mu g/mL. The effect of S-EtOH (1 mu g/mL) on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophages was measured by flow cytometry using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCFDA) where it caused a significant increase in the mean fluorescence channel (MFC) from 8.55 +/- 0.03 to 47.32 +/- 2.25 (p < 0.001). S-EtOH also effected a 3.8-fold increase in extracellular nitric oxide (NO) generation from 4.90 +/- 0.72 mu M to 18.79 +/- 0.32 mu M (p < 0.001), a 2.2-fold increase in intracellular NO production, the MFC increasing from 14.95 +/- 0.48 to 33.34 +/- 1.66 (p < 0.001), and concomitantly selleck screening library depleted non protein thiols as analyzed by flow cytometry using mercury orange, with a reduction in MFC from 632.5 +/- 49.44 to 407.4 +/- 12.61 (p < 0.01). Additionally, S-EtOH (14 mu g/mL, 24 h) caused apoptosis as evident by increased Annexin V binding and terminal deoxynucleotidyl

transferase mediated dUTP DNA nick end labeling. Taken together, the cytotoxicity of S-EtOH can be partly attributed to its capacity to inflict oxidative damage via generation of both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species culminating in apoptosis. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Fanconi anaemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with progressive bone marrow failure and predisposition to malignancy. We report a case of a 26-year-old female patient with Fanconi anaemia and severe chronic active hepatitis C virus infection. Her past medical history included treatment with multiple blood transfusions and bone marrow transplantation at the age of 13. The decision to treat the infection was taken, and history of hematologic disease contributed to the introduction of therapy with leukocyte interferon-alpha n3 and ribavirin combined with a granulocyte – colony stimulating factor. The treatment was well tolerated and after 48 weeks a reduction of the viral load and alanine aminotransferase activity were achieved. No adverse effects on bone marrow functioning were noted.

7%) and the khat-chewing (100%) groups was highly significant Th

7%) and the khat-chewing (100%) groups was highly significant. The mean gingival index and the depth of periodontal pockets of the khat-chewing subjects were significantly reduced at the chewing side compared with the nonchewing side. Increased gingival recession was recorded on the khat-chewing side. Discoloration of the teeth adjacent to the site of chewing was recorded. Oral dryness occurring 30 minutes after initiating the khat-chewing

session was reported by khat users.

Conclusion. Khat chewing may result in YH25448 a number of changes in the oral mucosa and the dentition. The mechanical and chemical irritation may result in the development of mucosal white lesions and dark pigmentation. Khat chewing may reduce aspects related to risk of gingival and periodontal inflammation, but it appears to be associated with attachment

loss at the site of chewing. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: e60-e66)”
“The propagation characteristics of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on the Y-cut X-propagating Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O-3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-PbTiO3 FK228 in vivo (PIN-PMN-PT) substrate are theoretically analyzed. The results indicate the existence of a shear horizontal (SH)-type SAW with an ultrahigh electromechanical coupling factor K-2. Different metal layers (Au, Al, and Cu) were examined as the electrode material. With gold, the maximum K-2 for the SH SAW reaches 72.6%, while it is smaller (69.7%) for Al or Cu. There also exists a Rayleigh SAW causing the spurious response. It is shown that the response can be suppressed sufficiently by properly adjusting the thickness of the metal layer. This feature is very attractive for the realization

of ultrawideband SAW filters. Variation of SAW properties with the substrate rotating angle theta was also investigated. The result indicates that h theta = 0 degrees is the best due to the relatively larger K-2 for SH SAW and lower value for Rayleigh spurious response. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3549804]“
“In Napabucasin molecular weight this study, the influence of phase separation on impact toughness of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/poly(ethylene-co-octene) (PEOc) blends was investigated. For the typical toughened polymeric system, three iPP/PEOc compositions (80/20, 70/30, and 60/40) were selected. When the polymeric blends were annealed at 200 degrees C, the coarsening of phase domains was more prominent for the blend containing higher content of PEOc, and the scale of its morphological evolution was increased as well. The impact test showed that the impact strength variation trend as a function of annealing time was closely related to morphological evolution. It was believed that the sharpening of phase boundary and coarsening of phase domains were responsible for the depression of impact toughness, and the probable fracture mode alteration from shear banding to crazing and voiding.

There is ample evidence that treatments that typically produce am

There is ample evidence that treatments that typically produce amnesia become innocuous when animals are submitted to a procedure of enhanced training. We now report that extinction of inhibitory avoidance (IA), trained with relatively low foot-shock

intensities, induces pruning of dendritic spines along the length of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons. When animals are trained with a relatively high foot-shock there is a high resistance to extinction, and pruning in learn more the proximal and medial segments of the apical dendrite are seen, while spine count in the distal dendrite remains normal. These results indicate that pruning is involved in behavioral extinction, while maintenance of spines is a probable mechanism that mediates the protecting effect against amnesic treatments produced by enhanced training.”
“Purpose: selleckchem To investigate the electro-reduction behaviour and determination of ciprofloxacin using a hanging mercury drop electrode.

Methods: Cyclic voltammograms of ciprofloxacin recorded in Britton -Robinson buffers pH 2 – 5 exhibit a single irreversible cathodic peak. The dependence of the peak current and peak potential values on buffer (nature, pH and concentration) and

accumulation conditions (time and potential) were examined and used for the quantitative analysis of ciprofloxacin in dosage forms and urine. Acetate buffer (0.08 M, pH 3.6) was selected as a supporting electrolyte for quantitative purposes by differential pulse and square wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry.


A reduction wave was seen in the range of -1.3 to -1.5 V. These techniques were successfully validated as per ICH guidelines and comparable to US Pharmacopoeia HPLC method. The techniques was applied to the determination of ciprofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations (i. e. precision (RSD < 1%) and accuracy (99 -101%)), and was further extended to determine ciprofloxacin in spiked human urine with no matrix effect (i. e. LLOQ 0.01 mu g/ml, precision (RSD < 15%) and accuracy (85 -115%)).

Conclusion: Validated adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetric technique can be recommended selleck kinase inhibitor for use in quality control and pharmacokinetics studies.”
“Stiff-person syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by rigidity of axial or limb muscles with episodes of co-contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles during the spasms. In some patients axial or limb involvement may predominate and may have unusual manifestations.

Case report.

Tertiary care teaching hospital.

A 42-year-old farmer presented with seasonal occurrence of hiccup and vomiting during summer months for the last 3 years. He had painful lower limb spasms lasting for 2-3 minutes every 10-15 minutes for the past 20 days.


Conclusion: this website This study is the first to document the sensitivity of P. falciparum parasites to CQ and SP in Brazilian field samples. The importance of these findings is discussed.”
“Background: Given the association of depression with poorer cardiac outcomes, an American Heart Association Science Advisory has advocated routine screening

of cardiac patients for depression using the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) “”at a minimum.”" However, the prognostic value of the PHQ-2 among HF patients is unknown.

Methods and Results: We screened hospitalized HF patients (ejection fraction [EF] <40%) that staff suspected may be depressed with the PHQ-2, and then determined vital status at up to 12-months follow-up. At baseline, PHQ-2 depression screen positive patients (PHQ-2+; n = 371), compared with PHQ-2 screen negative patients (PHQ-2; n = 100), were younger (65 vs 70 years) and more likely to report New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III/IV than class II symptoms (67% vs. 39%) and lower levels of physical and mental health related quality of life (all P <=.002); they were similar in other characteristics MS-275 (65% male, 26% mean EF). At 12 months, 20% of PHQ-2+ versus 8% of PHQ-2 patients had died (P = .007) and PHQ-2 status remained associated with both all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] 3.1, 95% confidence

interval [CI] 1.4-6.7; P =.003) and cardiovascular (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.6; P = .03) mortality even after adjustment for age, gender, EF, NYHA functional class, and a variety of other covariates.

Conclusions: Among hospitalized HF patients, a positive PHQ-2 depression screen is associated with an elevated 12-month mortality

ON-01910 purchase risk. (J Cardiac Fail 2012;18:238-245)”
“Acinetobacter baumannii has few known virulence factors and yet causes a variety of opportunistic infections. Many gram-negative bacteria are directly killed by complement, but we hypothesized that A. baumannii would be resistant to serum killing. A serum bactericidal assay assessed the resistance of seven A. baumannii isolates to serum killing, and C2-deficient serum was used to examine its activation of the alternative pathway. Flow cytometry was utilized to determine whether complement regulator factor H (FH) was bound by A. baumannii, and to assay C3 deposition on cells. A microtiter biofilm assay compared biofilm production among isolates. Of seven isolates, four were serum sensitive and three were serum resistant. The C2-deficient serum demonstrated that A. baumannii can activate the alternative pathway. None of the isolates bound FH. Serum-resistant strains accumulated little C3 when exposed to human serum, while sensitive strains had a high amount of surface C3 deposition. Biofilm production varied extensively among strains. Most serum-resistant isolates formed a substantial amount of biofilm, while sensitive isolates produced negligible amounts of biofilm. Our data indicate that some strains of A.

The structure-function relationship of plant CNGCs was investigat

The structure-function relationship of plant CNGCs was investigated here by using the chimeric Arabidopsis AtCNGC11/12 gene that induces multiple defence responses in the Arabidopsis mutant constitutive expresser of PR genes 22 (cpr22) for the identification of functionally

essential residues. A genetic screen for mutants that suppress cpr22-conferred phenotypes identified over 20 novel mutant alleles in AtCNGC11/12. One of these mutants, suppressor S58 possesses a single amino acid substitution, arginine 557 to cysteine, in the alpha C-helix of the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD). The suppressor S58 lost all cpr22 related phenotypes, such as spontaneous cell death formation under ambient CX-6258 temperature conditions. However, these phenotypes were

recovered at 16 degrees C suggesting that the stability of channel function Selleckchem GDC-0994 is affected by temperature. In silico modelling and site-directed mutagenesis analyses suggest that arginine 557 in the alpha C-helix of the CNBD is important for channel regulation, but not for basic function. Furthermore, another suppressor mutant, S136 that lacks the entire alpha C-helix due to a premature stop codon, lost channel function completely. Our data presented here indicate that the alpha C-helix is functionally important in plant CNGCs.”
“The conceptual shift of our understanding of migraine from a vascular disorder to a brain disorder has dramatically altered the approach to the development of new medicines in the field. Current pharmacologic treatments of acute migraine consist of nonspecific and relatively specific agents. Migraine-specific drugs comprise two classes, the ergot alkaloid derivatives and the triptans, serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists. The ergots, consisting of ergotamine and dihydroergotamine (DHE), are the oldest specific antimigraine drugs available and are considered relatively safe and effective. Ergotamine has been used less extensively because of its adverse effects; DHE is better tolerated. The triptan era, beginning Fer-1 in the 1990s, was a period of considerable change, although these medicines

retained vasoconstrictor actions. New methods of delivering older drugs include orally inhaled DHE and the transdermal formulation of sumatriptan, both currently under study. Novel medicines being developed are targeted at neural sites of action. Serotonin 5-HT(1F) receptor agonists have proven effective in phase II studies and have no vascular actions. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists are another promising nonvasoconstrictor approach to treating acute migraine. Olcegepant (BIBN4096BS) and telcagepant (MK-0974) have been shown to be safe and effective in phase I, II, and (for telcagepant) phase III clinical trials. Other targets under investigation include glutamate (AMPA/kainate), TRPV1, prostanoid EP4, and nitric oxide synthase.

The present study quantitatively demonstrated nuclear morphologic

The present study quantitatively demonstrated nuclear morphological alterations in rat LCs at 7 wks old (puberty) due to the prenatal DBP administration before apparent LC hyperplasia developed.”
“Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection, frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, is commonly associated with high morbimortality. Several outbreaks selleck kinase inhibitor due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumanii have been reported but few of them in Brazil. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with colonization

and infection by MDR and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from patients admitted to the adult ICU at HC/UFMG. A case-control study was performed from January 2007 to June 2008. Cases were defined as patients colonized or infected by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and controls were patients without MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolation, in a 1: 2 proportion. For statistical analysis, due to changes in infection control guidelines, infection criteria and the notification process, this study was divided into two periods. During the first period analyzed, from January to December

2007, colonization Dinaciclib inhibitor or infection by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was associated with prior infection, invasive device utilization, prior carbapenem use and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, prior infection and mechanical ventilation proved to be statistically significant risk factors. Carbapenem use showed a tendency towards a statistical association. During the second study period, from January VS-6063 ic50 to June 2008, variables with a significant association with MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii colonization/infection were catheter utilization, carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use, hepatic transplantation,

and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, only CVC use showed a statistical difference. Carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use displayed a tendency to be risk factors. Risk factors must be focused on infection control and prevention measures considering A. baumanni dissemination.”
“T cells, particularly CD4(+) T cells, play a central role in both progression and control of periodontal disease, whereas the contribution of the various CD4(+) T helper subsets to periodontal destruction remains controversial, the activation, and regulation of these cells is orchestrated by dendritic cells. As sentinels of the oral mucosa, dendritic cells encounter and capture oral microbes, then migrate to the lymph node where they regulate the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells.

Aim of the study was to examine the role of CYP3A5*3 variant in t

Aim of the study was to examine the role of CYP3A5*3 variant in tacrolimus and everolimus dose and drug levels after heart transplantation.


The present study comprised 15 patients with Tacrolimus and 30 patients with Everolimus-based maintenance therapy after heart transplantation. CYP3A5 genotypes were determined and correlated with clinical data.



the Tacrolimus group, 13 subjects were CYP3A5 non-expressors (*3/*3 genotype) and two were heterozygous expressors (*1/*3 genotype). Average Tacrolimus dose was significantly higher in subjects expressing CYP3A5 compared to non-expressors. Tacrolimus levels were not significantly different at any point of time. In the Everolimus group, 27 subjects were CYP3A5 non-expressors (*3/*3 genotype) and three were heterozygous expressors

(*1/*3). Neither Everolimus dose nor levels were significantly different between CYP3A5 expressors and non-expressors selleck products at any point of time.


We Ilomastat conclude that in adult patients after heart transplantation, CYP3A5 genotypes have a strong influence on Tacrolimus, but not Everolimus dose requirement.”
“Application of ultrafiltration in recovery of protein from brewer’s spent grain (BSG) was studied In this work. The effectiveness ill removing water and salts was evaluated Results indicated that increasing of cross-now rate could improve the limiting flux More than 92% of the protein was retained by (lie membranes with both MWCO of 5 and 30 kDa The protein contents in the final product Selleck Ispinesib were 2009:1: 140% and 15 98 +/- 0 58%, respectively by 2 and 30 kDa membranes compared with that of 4 86 +/- 0 61% concentrated the extract solution and improved the quality of final products The 5 kDa membrane had a little higher protein retention capacity than that of 30 kDa (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B V”
“Background: The PRIMUS is a Multiple Sclerosis (MS)-specific suite of outcome measures including assessments of QoL (PRIMUS QoL, scored 0-22) and activity limitations (PRIMUS Activities, scored 0-30). The U-FIS is a measure of fatigue impact (scored 0-66). These measures

have been fully validated previously using an MS sample with mixed diagnoses. The aim of the present study was to validate the measures further in a specifically Relapse Remitting MS (RRMS) sample and to provide preliminary evidence of the responder definitions (RD; also known as minimal important difference) for these instruments.

Methods: Data were derived from a multi-country efficacy trial of MS patients with assessments at baseline and 12 months. Baseline data were used to assess the internal reliability and validity of the measures. Both anchor-based and distribution-based approaches were employed for estimating RD. Anchor-based estimates were based on published RD values for the EQ 5D and were assessed for those improving and deteriorating separately.

lavandulifolia extract protected gastric mucosa from alcohol-indu

lavandulifolia extract protected gastric mucosa from alcohol-induced gastric ulcer. This gastroprotection click here may mediate via gastric mucosal nitric oxide production.”
“After reaction of zein with glyoxal the resulting electrospun fibers have improved resistance to known zein solvents. Durable fibers with diameters of 0.6 mu m could be produced. The reaction between zein and glyoxal was carried out in acetic acid (AcOH) at temperatures between 25 and 60 degrees C at various lengths of time. Gelation would occur

after higher extents of reaction. During the course of reaction, solution viscosity increased which increased the diameter of the electrospun fibers produced from these solutions. Gel electrophoresis showed increased molecular weight as the reaction progressed. When 6% glyoxal was allowed to react with zein at 25 degrees C for 6 h, the resulting fibers were durable to AcOH as spun. Other formulations required a second thermal treatment to provide

solvent durable fabrics. Fibers displayed different secondary structure utilizing far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy. The infrared spectra Compound C clinical trial displayed peaks in the C-O region supporting the reaction of glyoxal with hydroxyl groups present on zein. Zein fabrics incorporating glyoxal had modestly improved tensile strength. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: The Solomon Islands National Malaria Programme is currently focused on intensified control and progressive elimination. Selleckchem Ricolinostat Recent control efforts in Isabel Province have reduced their malaria incidence to 2.6/1,000 population in 2009 [1] whereas most neighbouring provinces have much higher incidences. A malaria surveillance-response system that involves testing all travellers entering Isabel Province using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to prevent cases being imported had been proposed by local health authorities. This study provides information on the feasibility and acceptability

of implementing a new approach of surveillance and response in the context of low levels of indigenous malaria transmission in Isabel Province.

Methods: A total of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) and 22 key informant interviews (KII) were conducted in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Key topics included: the travel patterns of people to, from and within Isabel Province; the acceptability, community perceptions, attitudes and suggestions towards the proposed surveillance programme; and management of suspected malaria cases. This information was triangulated with data obtained from port authorities, airlines and passenger ships travelling to and from Isabel Province in the preceding two years.

Results: Travel within Isabel Province and to and from other provinces is common with marked seasonality. The majority of inter- provincial travel is done on scheduled public transport; namely passenger ships and aircrafts.

Patients with apnea-hypopnea index values >= 5 were diagnosed

Patients with apnea-hypopnea index values >= 5 were diagnosed to have sleep apnea. O-C2 angles were calculated from cervical radiographs.

Results. All 8 patients were diagnosed as having sleep apnea, and most of their apneic episodes were obstructive in origin. Among the 4 patients with medullary compression, central apneic episodes comprised <= 5% of their respiratory events. Two patients with severe sleep apnea had negative O-C2 angles. Six patients who showed postoperative improvements in their sleep apnea all had positive changes in their O-C2 angles exceeding 5 after surgery. The differences between preoperative

and postoperative O-C2 angles were significantly greater in the patients with improvement of sleep apnea than in the patients with worsening sleep apnea.

Conclusion. All our study patients with RA and upper cervical lesions had obstructive-dominant sleep apnea. Negative O-C2 angles may result in upper MDV3100 supplier airway narrowing, increasing the severity of sleep apnea. O-C fusion with correction of kyphosis at the craniovertebral junction has the potential to improve sleep apnea in RA patients.”
“High-barrier polyamide

11 (PA11) was prepared by in situ co-crosslinking technology using ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) as the barrier layer, and the morphology development and Epigenetic high throughput screening non-isothermal crystallization behavior were investigated. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations demonstrated that Roscovitine cell line the morphology development was greatly dependent on the concentration of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). A pronounced lamellar morphology was obtained at 1.5% DCP loading level. The analysis of non-isothermal crystallization kinetics indicated that the addition of EVOH and DCP affected the crystallization mode of PA 11. Notably, the crystallization rate of PA 11 was related with the morphology of EVOH and the interaction between EVOH and PA 11. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl

Polym Sci 118: 2126-2133, 2010″
“Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is associated with B-cell lymphomas in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the major oncogenic protein of EBV, promotes tumorigenesis through activation of NF-kappa B, Erk, p38, JNK and Akt. The Jak/STAT signal transduction pathway is also constitutively active in PTLD-associated EBV<SU+</SU B-cell lymphomas. Here we determine the mechanism of Jak/STAT activation in EBV<SU+</SU B-cell lymphomas and the role of LMP1 in this process. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed no direct interaction of LMP1 and JAK3, but known associations between JAK3 and common gamma chain, and between LMP1 and TRAF3, were readily detected in EBV<SU+</SU B cell lines from patients with PTLD. An inducible LMP1 molecule expressed in EBV<SU-</SU BL41 Burkitt’s cells demonstrated STAT activation only after prolonged LMP1 signaling.

g , amorphous Si), are relieved by this double layer Harsher the

g., amorphous Si), are relieved by this double layer. Harsher thermal treatments can be adopted while still obtaining salient passivation. Furthermore, characterization of the same, such as, surface photovoltage, capacitance voltage, and electron paramagnetic resonance, enables the reproducibility and the understanding of the passivation scheme under test. It is shown PD98059 in vivo that the strong quality of surface passivation is ensured by a mechanism that emits electrons from shallow donor states in the

passivation layer system and therefore creates a positive field effect. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics.[doi:10.1063/1.3544421]“
“Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negatives is increasing; treatment options are limited. Although tigecycline is used Infrequently for urinary tract infection (UTI), greater use is likely as resistance increases. We report successful treatment of an episode of febrile UTI and probable prostatitis with tigecycline, and summarize the relevant literature.”
“We report on a direct comparison of the depth and lateral resolution of the current state-of-the-art Dinaciclib in vivo laser-assisted

atom probe microscopy analysis of single-crystalline silicon. The isotopic heterostructures composed of 5-15 nm-thick (28)Si- and (30)Si-enriched layers were measured to reconstruct three-dimensional images of (28)Si and (30)Si stable isotope distributions in the surface perpendicular and parallel directions for the analysis of the depth and lateral resolution, respectively. The decay length experimentally obtained for the

lateral direction is only about twice longer than in the direction, meaning that the lateral resolution is higher than obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3544496]“
“Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mandibular advancement on oropharyngeal dimension and collapsibility and reveal the predominate site of change produced by mandibular Anlotinib supplier advancement in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Study design. Sixteen adults (13 males and 3 females) with symptomatic mild to severe OSA participated. Custom-made silicone mandibular positioners were used to keep the mandible at 67% of maximum advancement. Changes in the oropharyngeal size and collapsibility with mandibular advancement were evaluated using ultrafast computed tomography taken during wakefulness and midazolam-induced sleep. Cross-sectional areas were assessed using electron beam tomography at 4 levels: high retropalatal (HRP), low retropalatal (LRP), high retroglossal (HRG), and low retroglossal (LRG).

Results. During sleep, the minimum cross-sectional areas decreased 36.5%, 67.8%, 75.5%, and 65.8% at each level of HRP, LRP, HRG, and LRG respectively, as compared with those measured during wakefulness. Mandibular advancement during sleep increased 75.7%, 141.3%, 128.1%, and 119.9% at each level. The oropharynx showed 70.3%, 110.4%, 140.3%, and 156.