As with any invasive procedure, complications like bleeding, tear, anesthetic complications can occur but are rare. In conclusion, MDCT is the preferred initial imaging modality in patients with clinical suspicion for SRT1720 order pancreatic cancer. The role of MRI for use in pancreatic cancer diagnosis is evolving and is currently used interchangeably with MDCT for this purpose. MRCP seems promising in differentiating pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis. PET scans can provide information on occult metastasis but its clinical benefit Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is not established. EUS is the most accurate examination for diagnosing pancreatic cancer and can be a useful adjunct to CT/MRI
in determining resectability of pancreatic cancer. EUS/EUS-FNA can also provide a definite determination about the presence of pancreatic cancer in patients with non-specific findings Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical suggestive of cancer on conventional imaging. Footnotes No potential conflict of interest.
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the tenth cause of new cancer
cases and the fourth leading cause of cancer related death in the US, with an estimated 43,140 new cases and 36,800 deaths in 2010 (1). Despite the advances in surgical and medical treatment, the 5-year survival rate for PC is only approximately Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 5% when considering all stages of disease (1). Without a specific diagnostic marker and being asymptomatic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in early stage, PC is often diagnosed at an advanced/late stage when only palliative measures can be offered, which can only partially explain its observed poor prognosis (2). The 5-year survival rate of PC remains low at only 10-25% for those with locoregional disease due to local recurrence and/or distant metastasis after curative surgery (3). The lethal nature of PC therefore stems from its high metastatic potential to the lymphatic system and distant organs. In addition,
lack of effective chemotherapies, which is believed to be due to drug-resistance, also contributes to the high mortality of patients diagnosed with PC (4). Recent evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical transition (EMT) of PC cells contributes to the development of drug resistance (5). EMT plays crucial roles in the formation of the body plan and in the differentiation of tissues old and organs. During EMT, epithelial cells undergo profound phenotypic changes such as loss of cell-cell adhesion, loss of cell polarity, and acquisition of migratory and invasive properties (6). EMT not only occurs during embryonic development or as a physiological response to injury, but is also an important element in cancer progression through a variety of mechanisms. EMT endows cells with migratory and invasive properties, induces stem cell properties, prevents apoptosis and senescence, induces resistance to conventional chemotherapy, and contributes to immunosuppression (6).