Phenolics content of the untreated

cubes was 21 16 mg GAE

Phenolics content of the untreated

cubes was 21.16 mg GAE/100 g on day-0, whereas treated samples had higher contents – 70.82, 40.58, and 25.98 mg GAE/100 g in AA-CA-Ca, SAS, and IR-5 samples, respectively. Similarly, antioxidant activities (ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, ORAC) generally increased with all treatments, this effect was more pronounced with AA-CA-Ca. Total phenolics and antioxidant activities were stable during 12-day storage at 4 degrees C. Cubes treated with AA-CA-Ca showed consistently better color and firmness than the control and other two treatments. Storage time and treatments showed a mixed trend on pH, soluble solids, acidity, and sugar-acid ratio. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“As an infrared Raman probe, the molecule 3,3′-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (DTTC) has received Selleck CP 868596 much

attention in the past decades due to its potential applications in Raman imaging, single-cell detection, cancer diagnosis, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, ordinary Raman, SERS, and theoretical Raman spectra were investigated to estimate the DTTC suspension. More specifically, the original gold nanospheres (60 nm diameter) and gold nanorods were encoded with DTTC and stabilized with a layer of thiol-polyethylene glycol as Raman reporter; SERS data were also obtained from the samples. Hartree-Fock theory and density functional theory (DFT) calculation were applied to calculate the optimized Raman spectra of DTTC in water on the B3LYP/6-31G level. Subsequently, the obtained experimental spectra from DTTC were carefully compared with the theoretically calculated spectra, and good agreement was obtained between the theoretical and experimental results. The bands between 500 and 3100 cm(-1) in the ordinary Raman and SERS spectra were assigned as well. This work will facilitate the development of ultrasensitive GW786034 SERS probes for advanced biomedical imaging applications. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons,”
“The goals of this cross-sectional study were to (a) describe the prevalence

of 5 basic social needs in a cohort of parents attending an urban teaching hospital-based pediatric clinic, (b) assess parental attitudes toward seeking assistance from their child’s provider, and (c) examine resident providers’ attitudes and behaviors toward addressing these needs. Parents (n = 100) reported a median of 2 basic needs at the pediatric visit. The most common was employment (52%), followed by education (34%), child care 19%), food (16%), and h(;using (10%). Most parents (67%) had positive attitudes toward requesting assistance from their child’s pediatrician. The majority of resident providers (91%) believed in the importance of addressing social needs; however, few reported routinely screening for these needs (range, 11% to 18%). There is great potential for assisting low-income parents within the medical home.

(C) 2012 American Association

(C) 2012 American Association Wnt inhibitor of Physicists in Medicine. []“
“As sessile organisms growing in an ever-changing environment, plants must integrate multiple regulatory inputs to promote the appropriate developmental responses. One such nutritional signal is cellular sugar levels, which rise and fall throughout the day and affect a variety of developmental processes. To uncover signaling pathways that modulate sugar perception, compounds from the Library of Active Compounds in Arabidopsis were screened for the ability to perturb developmental responses to sucrose

(Suc) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. This screen found that sulfonamides, which inhibit folate biosynthesis in plants, restrict hypocotyl elongation in a sugar-dependent fashion. Transcriptome analysis identified a small set of transcripts Selleckchem Ulixertinib that respond to the interaction between sulfonamide and Suc, including a number of transcripts encoding Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acids, negative regulators of auxin signal transduction. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport or genetic disruption of auxin signaling relieved this interaction, suggesting that responses to these two nutritional stimuli are mediated by auxin. Reporter systems used to track auxin signaling and distribution showed

enhanced activity in the vascular region of the hypocotyl in response to cotreatment of Suc and sulfonamide, yet no change in auxin abundance was observed. Taken together, these findings suggest that the interplay between Suc and folates acts to fine-tune auxin sensitivity and influences auxin distribution during seedling development.”
“Real world tasks involving moving targets, such as driving a vehicle, are performed based on continuous decisions thought to depend

upon the temporal derivative of the expected utility (partial derivative V/partial derivative t), where the expected utility (V) is the effective value of a future reward. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie dynamic decision-making are not well understood. This study investigates human neural correlates of both V and partial derivative V/partial derivative t using fMRI and a novel experimental paradigm ZD1839 purchase based on a pursuit-evasion game optimized to isolate components of dynamic decision processes. Our behavioral data show that players of the pursuit-evasion game adopt an exponential discounting function, supporting the expected utility theory. The continuous functions of V and partial derivative V/partial derivative t were derived from the behavioral data and applied as regressors in fMRI analysis, enabling temporal resolution that exceeded the sampling rate of image acquisition, hyper-temporal resolution, by taking advantage of numerous trials that provide rich and independent manipulation of those variables.

Multivariate analysis demonstrated that LVEF <= 45% was the in

Multivariate analysis demonstrated that LVEF <= 45% was the independent predictor for cardiac events. Nevertheless, Delta EDV >= 5ml was also an independent parameter, in addition P005091 in vitro to LVEF <= 45%, to predict the combined endpoint of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization, but excluding heart failure.\n\nConclusions: These results indicate that post-ischemic stunning, as assessed by gated SPECT, is a marker for poor prognosis, particularly for ischemic cardiac events. (Circ J 2010; 74: 1591-1599)”
“As our understanding of inflammatory resolution increases, drugs that trigger proresolution pathways

may become significant in treating chronic inflammatory diseases. However, anti-inflammatory drugs are traditionally tested during the first hours of onset (i.e., to dampen leukocyte and edema formation), and their ability to trigger proresolution processes has never been investigated. Moreover, there is no model available to screen for putative proresolving agents. In this study, we

present a new strategy to identify therapeutics for their ability to switch inflammation off and restore homeostasis. Injecting 1.0 LY294002 ic50 mg of zymosan i.p. causes transient inflammation characterized by polymorphonuclear neutrophil clearance and dominated by recently described resolution-phase macrophages along with an innate-type lymphocyte repopulation, the latter being a marker of tissue homeostasis. In contrast, 10 mg of zymosan elicits HDAC inhibitor an aggressive response characterized by classically activated macrophages leading to systemic inflammation and impaired lymphocyte repopulation. Although this latter model eventually resolves, it nonetheless represents inflammation in the

clinically relevant setting of polymorphonuclear neutrophil/classically activated macrophage dominance driving a cytokine storm. Treating such a reaction therapeutically with proresolution drugs provides quantifiable indices of resolution-polymorphonuclear neutrophil/macrophage clearance, macrophage phenotype switching (classically activated to resolution phase), and repopulation with resolution-phase lymphocytes-cardinal signs of inflammatory resolution and homeostasis in the peritoneum. As an illustration, mice bearing peritonitis induced by 10 mg of zymosan- were given ibuprofen, resolvin El, a prostaglandin D(2) receptor 1 agonist, dexamethasone, rolipram, or azithromycin, and their ability to trigger resolution and homeostasis in this new inflammatory setting was investigated. We present the first model for testing drugs with targeted proresolution properties using quantifiable parameters of inflammatory resolution and homeostasis. The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 184: 1516-1525.

01 ppm of phorate for 72 h and then transferred to pesticide free

01 ppm of phorate for 72 h and then transferred to pesticide free water. Tissue chosen for the repair experiment was liver. Samplings were done at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after the release of 72 h pesticide treated fishes into pesticide free water. VX-680 cell line Fishes showed a reduction in DNA breaks from 3 h onwards in pesticide free water and at 24 h returned to control level damage. The results indicate that phorate is a potential genotoxicant, comet assay can be used

in DNA damage and repair analysis, response to pollutants in multicellular animals is often tissue specific.”
“Earlier recognition of chronic kidney disease (CKD) could slow progression, prevent complications, and reduce cardiovascular-related outcomes. However, current estimates of CKD awareness indicate that both patient- and provider-level

awareness remain unacceptably low. Many of the factors that are possibly associated with CKD awareness, which could help guide implementation of awareness efforts, have yet to be fully examined. Also, little is known regarding whether increased patient or provider awareness improves clinical outcomes, or whether there are possible negative consequences of awareness for CKD patients. Further Selleck INCB28060 research is necessary to continue to design and refine awareness campaigns aimed at both patients and providers, but there is an immediate need for dissemination of basic CKD information, given both the high prevalence XMU-MP-1 mw of CKD and its risk factors and the low estimated awareness of CKD. (c) 2010 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights

“Waters JR, Van Meter P, Perrotti W, Drogo S, Cyr RJ. Human clay models versus cat dissection: how the similarity between the classroom and the exam affects student performance. Adv Physiol Educ 35: 227-236, 2011; doi:10.1152/advan.00030.2009.-This study examined the effect of different anatomic representations on student learning in a human anatomy class studying the muscular system. Specifically, we examined the efficacy of using dissected cats (with and without handouts) compared with clay sculpting of human structures. Ten undergraduate laboratory sections were assigned to three treatment groups: cat dissection only, cat dissection with handouts, and human clay sculpting with handouts. Exams included higher-order questions that presented novel anatomic images and scenarios that the students did not practice in class. The higher-order anatomy exam questions varied the degree to which students in the different treatments had to transform the anatomic representation studied during laboratory activities to match the representation used in the exam questions. In this respect, exam questions manipulated the similarity between the surface features of the anatomic representations used in the classroom versus the exam. When identifying anatomic structures presented in a photograph or diagram, student performance improved significantly when transformation demands decreased, i.e.

Hence, as eye size varies within a lineage, so will the compromis

Hence, as eye size varies within a lineage, so will the compromises between features that maximize acuity and those that maximize sensitivity. We examined these compromises in four species of nymphalid butterflies that varied in body mass over almost two orders of magnitude. The largest of these species

was crepuscular and so additionally may indicate the potential effect of life style on eye structure. Across these species, as body size increased, facet diameters increased while interommatidial angles decreased. Finally, the eye parameter was fairly constant across species except in the crepuscular species in which some notably large values were observed in the frontal visual field. Based on our measurements, large butterflies have more acute and more sensitive vision than smaller butterflies. However, full understanding of the behavioral implications of this relationship awaits information selleck compound on the temporal resolution of their eyes because typical flight velocities also increase with body size. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite potential benefits of group medical visits (GMVs) for patients with diabetes, little has been published regarding resident training

to conduct GMVs. Constraints of residency may limit their participation in GMVs, making transfer of skills to future practice less likely. We developed a novel curriculum that puts family medicine residents in charge of leading “mini-GMVs” with patients from their own continuity panels.\n\nMETHODS: After a series of skill-building seminars, each third-year resident, with support from one to two faculty members, conducted

a series of mini-GMVs with three to four of his/her own patients with diabetes. Faculty provided feedback during a debriefing at the end of each visit. The curriculum was evaluated using structured resident interviews Selleck PD98059 and serial faculty ratings of resident performance in the groups.\n\nRESULTS: Over 2 years, 24 residents participated, each performing an average of 5.3 visits. Patient recruitment was a significant challenge. Faculty ratings of resident skills showed significant improvements in many key skills from first to last evaluations, and 91% of residents reported feeling adequately prepared to conduct GMVs.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: With preparation for, practice, and feedback on leading mini-GMVs, family medicine residents demonstrated improved skills for conducting GMVs.”
“Genetic population structure of anadromous striped bass along the US Atlantic coast was analyzed using 14 neutral nuclear DNA microsatellites. Young-of-the-year and adult striped bass (n = 1114) were sampled from Hudson River, Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Analyses indicated clear population structure with significant genetic differentiation between all regions. Global multilocus F-ST was estimated at 0.028 (P < 0.001).

In coastal soils, 25% of fungal sequences were putatively identif

In coastal soils, 25% of fungal sequences were putatively identified as basidiomycetous yeasts belonging to the genus Cryptococcus. Although the function of these yeasts in soil is not known, they

could significantly contribute to decomposition processes in coastal soils distinguished by rapid tree growth, high N content, low pH, and frequent water-saturation events.”
“Objective: The treatment of complex aortic pathologies of the thoracic aorta remains a challenging issue in aortic surgery. The most recent development of the classic elephant trunk technique, the ‘frozen elephant trunk’ technique, represents the combination of an endovascular approach with a conventional surgical treatment for a hybrid approach. Methods: SIS3 ic50 Between January 2007 and July 2008, 34 patients were operated Selleck Nutlin-3 on for complex pathologies of the thoracic aorta using the frozen elephant trunk technique. There were 29 mates (85.3%) and the mean age of 61.7 +/- 9.6 years. The majority of patients (n = 18, 52%) presented type A chronic dissection, 7 (21%) patients had chronic aneurysm of distal aortic arch and 7 (21%) type B aortic dissection associated with ascending aorta/aortic

arch aneurysm. There were two (6%) cases of acute aortic dissection. Nineteen patients (56%) underwent previous cardiovascular operations. Results: The overall in-hospital mortality was 6% (two patients). No patient developed postoperative stroke. Ischemic spinal cord injury occurred in three cases (9%) (two paraparesis, one paraplegia). There were five cases (15%) of renal failure (dialysis) and four patients (12%) had pulmonary complications with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Four patients (12%) needed rethoracotomy for surgical bleeding. Six patients (18%) required extension

of the descending thoracic aorta repair with endovascular treatment for persistent perfusion of the dilated false lumen. Conclusions: The frozen elephant trunk technique with the new E-vita open prosthesis combines surgical and interventional technologies and represents a feasible and efficient option in the treatment of complex aortic pathologies. see more Strict monitoring of the patient has to be carried out in order to detect possible evolution of the aortic lesion, which can require prompt treatment. However, tong-term follow-up is required. (C) 2008 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Organ size regulation is a highly coordinated process involving complex mechanisms. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif, also known as WWTR1 (TAZ) have recently been linked to organ size determination and cell proliferation. Pilomatrixoma (PM) is a benign tumor of the adnexal appendages with a certain degree of differentiation toward the matrix of the hair follicle. PM presents as a dermal nodule that usually ranges from 0.5 to 2 cm, rarely exceeding 3 cm. We recently observed a case of unusual “giant” (6.

Impeller tip velocities within the range of 1 56-3 12 m s(-1) had

Impeller tip velocities within the range of 1.56-3.12 m s(-1) had no marked effect, either on the xylanase activity, or on the maximum volumetric rate of xylanase production. These results also check details demonstrated that SSL constituted a suitable carbon feedstock as well as inducer for xylanase production in aerobic submerged culture by this strain of A. oryzae.”
“Aim: A single systemic administration of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) causes retinal degeneration involving photoreceptor cell death within 7 days. MNU-induced photoreceptor cell death is due to apoptosis, and is a reliable animal model for human retinitis pigmentosa.

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the involvement of calpain-mediated autophagy, as well as apoptosis on the cell death cascade caused by MNU and to evaluate the efficacy of calpain inhibitor SNJ-1945. Materials and Methods: Seven-week-old BALB/c mice were left untreated or received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of MNU. The MNU-exposed Epigenetics inhibitor mice received an IP injection of SNJ-1945 or vehicle alone (distilled water containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) 3 h prior to MNU and once daily thereafter until sacrifice. Eyes were examined histologically, histochemically, and morphometrically to analyze the photoreceptor cell

ratio and retinal damage ratio. The retinal expression of caspase-3, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), autophagy-related protein 5 (Atg5), and a-spectrin was determined by Western blot analysis. Results: During the 72-h period after MNU exposure, the caspase-3 4EGI-1 research buy expression increased and the LC3 and Atg5 expression decreased, indicating increased levels of apoptosis and decreased levels of autophagy, as compared with the MNU-unexposed control mouse retina. MNU-induced photoreceptor cell death was caused by increased calpain activation as measured by a-spectrin proteolysis products, while SNJ-1945 ameliorated photoreceptor cell death by blocking calpain

activation and restoring basal autophagy. Conclusion: Calpain activation is involved in MNU-induced photoreceptor cell death, and calpain inhibition effectively restored photoreceptor cell autophagy and photoreceptor cell death in mice.”
“Protein kinases Akt1 and Akt3 are considered to be more crucial to brain function than Akt2. We investigated the roles of Akt1 and Akt3 in stroke-induced brain injury and examined their interactions with the Akt/mTOR pathways. Focal ischemia was induced in rats. Lentiviral vectors expressing constitutively active Akt1 and Akt3 (cAkt1 and cAkt3) were injected into the ischemic cortex. Infarct sizes and gene and protein expressions in the Akt/mTOR pathways were evaluated. The results show that Akt1 and Akt3 proteins were degraded as early as 1 hour after stroke, whereas Akt2 proteins remained unchanged until 24 hours after stroke. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of cAkt1 or cAkt3 reduced neuronal death after in vitro and in vivo ischemia.

The only exception to this pattern was the ventromedial nucleus

The only exception to this pattern was the ventromedial nucleus. The thalamic neurons are mostly devoid of IMPACT, with the exception of the paraventricular, reuniens and reticular nuclei, and intergeniculate leaf. The brainstem displayed high levels of IMPACT. For the marmoset, IMPACT expression in the brain is not

as prominent when compared to other organs. In the marmoset brain the pattern of IMPACT expression was similar to rodents in most areas, except for the very strong labeling of the Purkinje cells, the lack of IMPACT-positive neurons in the nucleus reuniens, and weak labeling of interneurons in the hippocampus. GCN1, the activator of GCN2 to which IMPACT binds, ACY-738 order is widely distributed in all neuronal populations, and all IMPACT-positive cells were also GCN1-positive. The data presented herein suggest that IMPACT may

be involved in biochemical homeostatic mechanisms that would prevent GCN2 activation and therefore ATF4 (CREB-2) synthesis in neurons.”
“Background: Growth in fishes is regulated via many environmental and physiological factors and is shaped by the genetic background of each individual. Previous microarray studies of salmonid growth have examined fish experiencing either muscle wastage or accelerated growth patterns following refeeding, or the influence of growth hormone and transgenesis. This study determines the gene expression profiles of genetically unmanipulated large and small fish from a domesticated salmonid strain reared on a typical feeding regime. Gene expression profiles of white muscle and liver from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two seasonal spawning groups check details (September and December lots) within a single strain were examined when the fish were 15 months of age to assess the influence of season (late fall vs. onset of spring) and body size (large vs. small).\n\nResults: IGF-1R inhibitor Although IGFBP1 gene expression

was up-regulated in the livers of small fish in both seasonal lots, few expression differences were detected in the liver overall. Faster growing Dec. fish showed a greater number of differences in white muscle expression compared to Sept. fish. Significant differences in the GO Generic Level 3 categories ‘response to external stimulus’, ‘establishment of localization’, and ‘response to stress’ were detected in white muscle tissue between large and small fish. Larger fish showed up-regulation of cytoskeletal component genes while many genes related to myofibril components of muscle tissue were up-regulated in small fish. Most of the genes up-regulated in large fish within the ‘response to stress’ category are involved in immunity while in small fish most of these gene functions are related to apoptosis.\n\nConclusions: A higher proportion of genes in white muscle compared to liver showed similar patterns of up-or down-regulation within the same size class across seasons supporting their utility as biomarkers for growth in rainbow trout. Differences between large and small Sept.

Patients with asymLVD were older, had lower glomerular filtration

Patients with asymLVD were older, had lower glomerular filtration rate, higher levels of glycated hemoglobin, C reactive protein, LV mass, relative wall

thickness and prevalence of valve calcifications. Older age (HR 1.1 [1.02-1.18], p = 0.01), aortic valve calcifications (HR 6.3 [1.31-30.31], p = 0.02), LV concentric geometry defined as relative wall thickness >= 0.43 (HR 15.44 [2.96-80.44], p = 0.001) were independent predictors of asymLVD at multivariate analysis.\n\nConclusions: Using suitable echocardiographic indexes, asymLVD is detectable in two/third of DM patients without overt cardiac disease and is predicted by older age, cardiac valve calcifications and LV concentric remodeling. (C) 2013 Elsevier find more Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia

is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia.\n\nMethods: Following a pharmaceutical representative’s visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision

of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listings and restrictions (in Australia only). Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia.\n\nResults: Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78%) than in Australia (53%) (P < 0.001). In both countries, general Vadimezan purchase practitioners reported that indications (Australia, 90%, Malaysia, 93%) and dosages (Australia, 76%, Malaysia, 82%) were frequently provided by pharmaceutical representatives. Contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects were often omitted in the presentations (range 25% – 41%). General practitioners in Australia and Malaysia indicated that in more than 90% of presentations, pharmaceutical representatives partly or fully answered their questions on contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects. More general practitioners in Malaysia (85%) than in Australia (60%) reported that pharmaceutical representatives should have mentioned contraindications, precautions for use, drug interaction or adverse effects spontaneously (P < 0.001).

Dose-related dapagliflozin systemic exposures were observed at do

Dose-related dapagliflozin systemic exposures were observed at doses >= 0.1 mg and glucosuria

was observed at doses >= 0.3 mg and corroborated by UGD. The NOEL was P505-15 mw therefore 0.1 mg for glucosuria. For setting the new OEL, no UFs were required. Dividing the POD by 10 m(3) (the volume of air an adult inhales in a workday), the resulting OEL was 0.01 mg/m(3). In conclusion, low-dose clinical pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data can allow the OEL to be adjusted to the highest safe level. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Accurate estimates of the incidence and prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are needed to inform public health policies. In Norway, where both MRSA infection and carriage are notifiable conditions, the reported incidence of MRSA is slowly increasing. However, the proportion of MRSA in relation to all S. aureus isolates is unknown, making it difficult to determine if the rising incidence is real or an artifact of an increasing number of tests performed.\n\nAim: To characterize recent trends in MRSA infections and obtain a more complete understanding of the MRSA level in Norway.\n\nMethods: All reported cases of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from Oslo County (1997-2010)

and Health Region East (2008-2008), representing approximately 11% and 36% of the Norwegian population, respectively, were analyzed using a stochastic time series analysis to characterize trends.\n\nResults: In Oslo County, the proportion of methicillin-resistant cases increased from 0.73% to 3.78% during the study period and was well modeled by an exponential growth with a doubling constant of 5.7 years (95% CI 4.5-7.4 years). In Health Region East, the proportion of MRSA cases increased from 0.4% to 2.1% from 2002 to 2008, with a best-fitting linear increase of 0.26% (95% CI 0.21-0.30%) per year. In both cases, the choice of a linear or exponential model for the time trend produced only marginally different model fits. We found no significant changes due to revised national MRSA guidelines published in June 2009. Significant variations

WZB117 research buy in the increasing time trend were observed in the five hospitals within the region. The yearly reported incidence of MSSA was relatively stable in both study areas although we found seasonal patterns with peaks in August.\n\nConclusion: The level of MRSA is increasing in Norway, and the proportion of methicillin resistance in all S. aureus isolates are higher than the reported proportion of MRSA in invasive infections.”
“P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is the most frequently proposed factor for multi-drug resistance. It is traditionally measured using antibody-based methods. While these techniques can provide relative quantification values for P-gp levels, the important information that is usually missing is its amount in the biological system.