Our surveys show that most people are willing to choose a proenvironmental travel mode when they are traveling a short distance and that they are more concerned about the efficiency and travel cost over a longer distance. Consequently, if the quality of the public transportation service (speed, punctuality, comfort, and accessibility) is satisfactory kinase inhibitors of signaling pathways even at peak hours, it has the potential to enhance the proportion of proenvironmental travel. Therefore, various strategies under the guidance of the public transit priority strategy, BRT, subsidies for public transportation, and bicycle sharing systems all stimulate proenvironmental travel. Although the promoting
effects may be different for different individuals, they help to create a premise for proenvironmental travel. The biggest challenge in promoting proenvironmental travel is how to make people who own a private car reduce their car use as much as possible. At present in China, both the family income and the private car ownership rate are undergoing a period of rapid growth. People have strong material consumption values at this stage. Additionally, there is a dual difficulty for the whole society in promoting proenvironmental travel. Many people without cars tend to choose a proenvironmental mode, but their travel mode choice may change once they have a car as the car ownership will change the situation of the travel decision. With an increase in
the percentage of private car travel, the roads will become more crowded and the public transport service quality will decrease rapidly. Consequently, some people will gradually abandon public transport again. This will form a vicious circle, which can only be broken when people choose a proenvironmental travel mode based on their attitudes. However, according to the surveys, men with a high income who
travel for business have a closer correlation with carbon-intensive travel, while women with a medium income accept proenvironmental travel modes relatively easily. Changing the travel mode of the men with a high income needs a more powerful influence of social norms and the elimination of material consumption values. As a matter of fact, more and more researchers are focusing on how to educate and intervene in people’s decisions Cilengitide to reduce car use and choose a proenvironmental travel mode. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant no. 61203162. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
Traffic incidents are the primary causes of nonrecurrent traffic congestion on intercity expressways and arterial networks in cities [1, 2]. Many Advanced Traffic Incident Management (ATIM) systems have been deployed all over the world in the past two decades to reduce traffic incident duration and congestion level.