Snus use was measured by the question: ��Do you use snus daily, occasionally, or not at all?�� Those who answered no were asked: ��Have you ever used snus?�� in a yes/no format. Based on these questions, we were able to identify dual use in accordance with a soundly based http://www.selleckchem.com/products/crenolanib-cp-868596.html proposal for definition recently put forward by Klesges et al. (2011); daily use of one product and at least weekly use of the other. Moreover, we could also identify groups with the combination of current exclusive use of one product and former use of the other. Exclusive and dual users of cigarettes and snus were asked to state their average number of cigarettes consumed per day (daily smokers) or per week (occasional smokers). When comparing smoking intensity across groups, daily consumption was computed into weekly consumption.
Significant differences between group means were identified with p values using independent t tests. People who had lifetime experience with both products were asked ��Which tobacco product did you start to use first��snus or cigarettes?�� with response categories ��cigarettes first,�� ��snus first,�� and ��at about the same time (within 3 months).�� Current dual users were asked how well three relevant motives for additional snus use (Gilljam & Galanti, 2003) described their situation: ��I use snus to (a) stop smoking completely, (b) reduce the amount of cigarettes I smoke, and (c) to replace cigarettes in places where smoking is allowed.�� Response categories ranged from 1 (apply fully) to 5 (do not apply at all).
In order to identify significant differences in motives for snus use between daily and occasional snus users, 95% CI were calculated. Exclusive smokers and dual users were asked Entinostat in a yes/no format if they had intentions to quit smoking within the next 6 months. Moreover, both groups were asked whether they perceived themselves to be smokers 5 years in the future. Response categories were as follows: definitely yes, probably yes, probably no, and definitely no. All data analyses were performed in SPSS version 19.1. Results The share of Norwegian men who reported daily or occasional use of cigarettes, but no other tobacco product, has declined from close to half in 1985 to below one in five in 2010. For the same period, the percent of exclusive snus users (daily or occasional) increased from 3% to 12%. The segment of dual users of cigarettes and snus has been stable (4%�C7%) for the whole period. The overall percentage of tobacco users decreased from 54.4% to 37% (Figure 1). Figure 1. Use (daily + occasional) of snus and cigarettes in Norwegian males aged 16�C74 for the period 1985�C2010. For the period 2005�C2010, 6.