The results showed that impulsivity was not associated with highe

The results showed that impulsivity was not associated with higher rates of drug-seeking/taking, but individual differences in smoking uptake and craving were. Rather, nonplanning impulsivity moderated (decreased) the relationship between craving and drug-taking, but not drug-seeking.

These data suggest that whereas the uptake of drug use is mediated by hypervaluation of the drug as an instrumental goal, the orthogonal trait nonplanning impulsivity confers a propensity for automatic control over well-practiced drug-taking behaviour.”
“Background: Only

local ablation (radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy) or esophagectomy currently is available to treat high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Alternative treatments, specifically chemopreventive strategies, are lacking. Our understanding of the molecular changes of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus offers an opportunity to inhibit neoplastic progression of high-grade dysplasia in Dinaciclib supplier Barrett’s esophagus. Increased activity of the Src kinase and deregulation of the tumor suppressor p27 are features of malignant cells and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Src phosphorylates p27, inhibiting its regulatory function and increasing cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that a small molecule inhibitor of Src

might reduce the growth and reverse Src-mediated deregulation of p27 in Barrett’s esophagus Staurosporine cells.

Methods: Immortalized Barrett’s esophagus cell lines 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase established from patient biopsies were treated with the Src kinase inhibitor dasatinib and evaluated for p27 localization and protein levels, as well as for effects on the cell cycle and apoptosis using flow cytometry, viability assays, and protein and RNA markers.

Results: Dasatinib reduced both Src activation and p27 phosphorylation and increased p27 protein levels and nuclear localization. These effects correlated with decreased proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, and activation of apoptosis. Analysis of biopsies of patients with Barrett’s esophagus revealed the presence of phosphorylated p27 in high-grade dysplasia, consistent with

in vitro findings.

Conclusions: Dasatinib has considerable antineoplastic effects on Barrett’s esophagus cell lines carrying genetic markers associated with dysplasia, which correlates with the reversal of p27 deregulation. These findings suggest that dasatinib has potential as a treatment for patients with high-grade dysplasia and Barrett’s esophagus and that p27 holds promise as a biomarker in the clinical use of dasatinib in patients with high-grade dysplasia and Barrett’s esophagus. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013;145:531-8)”
“The serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor is implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders, making it an important, clinically relevant target. Despite the availability of transgenic mouse lines, the native mouse 5-HT2A receptor is not well-characterized.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Purpose: A bar

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: A barrier to the acceptance of active surveillance for men with prostate cancer is the risk of underestimating the cancer burden on initial biopsy. We assessed the value of endorectal magnetic resonance imaging in predicting upgrading on confirmatory biopsy in men with low risk prostate

cancer.

Materials and Methods: A total of 388 consecutive men (mean age 60.6 years, range 33 to 89) with clinically Selleckchem Volasertib low risk prostate cancer (initial biopsy Gleason score 6 or less, prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml, clinical stage T2a or less) underwent endorectal magnetic resonance imaging before confirmatory biopsy. Three radiologists independently and retrospectively scored tumor visibility on endorectal magnetic resonance imaging using a 5-point scale (1-definitely no tumor to 5-definitely tumor). Inter-reader agreement CH5183284 supplier was assessed with weighted kappa statistics. Associations between magnetic resonance imaging scores and confirmatory biopsy findings were evaluated using measures of diagnostic performance

and multivariate logistic regression.

Results: On confirmatory biopsy, Gleason score was upgraded in 79 of 388 (20%) patients. Magnetic resonance imaging scores of 2 or less had a high negative predictive value (0.96-1.0) and specificity (0.95-1.0) for upgrading on confirmatory biopsy. A magnetic resonance imaging score of 5 was highly sensitive for upgrading on confirmatory biopsy (0.87-0.98). At multivariate analysis patients with higher magnetic resonance imaging scores were more likely to have disease upgraded on confirmatory biopsy (odds ratio 2.16-3.97). Inter-reader agreement

and diagnostic performance were higher for the more experienced readers (kappa 0.41-0.61, AUC 0.76-0.79) than for the least experienced reader (kappa 0.15-0.39, AUC 0.61-0.69). Magnetic resonance imaging performed similarly in predicting low risk and very low risk (Gleason score 6, less than 3 positive cores, less than 50% involvement in all cores) prostate cancer.

Conclusions: Adding endorectal magnetic resonance imaging to the initial clinical evaluation of men with clinically low risk prostate cancer helps predict findings on confirmatory biopsy Regorafenib order and assess eligibility for active surveillance.”
“Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a proglucagon-derived peptide released from enteroendocrine cells and neurons. We recently reported that GLP-2 induced hypotension. In the present study, we characterized the mechanisms of GLP-2-induced hypotension. GLP-2 was administered peripherally or centrally to male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane and alpha-chloralose. The rats were vagotomized or systemically pretreated with atropine, prazosin, or propranolol before the GLP-2 administration. The central and peripheral administration of GLP-2 reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP).

Future directions in rodent pain imaging include miniaturized PET

Future directions in rodent pain imaging include miniaturized PET for the freely moving animal, as well as new MRI techniques that enable ongoing chronic pain imaging. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“An animal model to study human infectious diseases should accurately reproduce MCC950 solubility dmso the various aspects of disease. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) are closely related to humans in terms of anatomy, genetics and physiology, and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. Indeed, experiments in pigs

are much more likely to be predictive of therapeutic treatments in humans than experiments in rodents. In this review, we highlight the numerous advantages of the pig model for infectious disease research and vaccine development and document a few examples of human microbial infectious diseases for which the use of pigs as animal models has contributed to the acquisition of new knowledge to improve both animal and human health.”
“Purpose: We determined whether data mining derived algorithms from electronic databases can improve empirical antimicrobial therapy in outpatients with a urinary tract infection.

Materials

and Methods: The electronic medical records from 3,308 visits associated with a positive urine culture at Northwestern’s outpatient Urology and Internal Medicine clinics and Emergency Department from 2005 to 2009 were interrogated. Bacterial species

and susceptibility rates for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin Taselisib in vitro and nitrofurantoin were compared. Using data mining techniques we created algorithms for empirical therapy of urinary tract infections and compared the theoretical outcomes from data mining derived therapy to those from conventional therapy.

Results: Patients were significantly older in the Department of Urology vs Internal Medicine vs Emergency Department, and more patients in the Department of Urology were male. During the 5-year period the susceptibility rates for ciprofloxacin in the Department of Urology and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Internal Medicine Mephenoxalone decreased significantly. In the Department of Urology the susceptibility rate for nitrofurantoin was greater than for ciprofloxacin, which was greater than for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In all departments, bacteria were more resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than to ciprofloxacin or nitrofurantoin. All drugs were more effective in the Emergency Department and Internal Medicine than the Department of Urology. Prior resistance patterns were the strongest predictor of current susceptibility profiles. In the Department of Urology the algorithms for patients with or without prior cultures theoretically outperformed conventional therapy in men (13.2%) and women (10.1%).

(J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;141:1063-9)”
“Objective: The

(J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;141:1063-9)”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether different techniques used for antegrade cerebral perfusion could account for variation in the perfusion adequacy of the brain and spinal cord.

Methods: Selected vessels were ligated in 30 rats, recreating a selection of approaches used in aortic arch surgery for patients undergoing circulatory arrest with antegrade

cerebral perfusion. Filling of spinal and cerebral vessels was mapped after cannulation Selleck Flavopiridol and perfusion with E20, gelatin/India ink, or buffered saline/India ink. Three clinical approaches were replicated: unilateral perfusion, bilateral perfusion, and bilateral perfusion with additional left subclavian artery perfusion. Filling

of the spinal arteries via the common carotid arteries or the subclavian arteries alone was examined. Penetration of the marker was analyzed histologically.

Results: The control experiments achieved Stattic ic50 maximal arterial filling of both brain and spinal cord at gross and microscopic levels. Unilateral and bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion provided comprehensive arterial filling of all cerebral vessels with all vascular markers. In contrast, only bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion provided complete spinal cord perfusion with all markers. Unilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion with a viscous marker resulted in significantly reduced spinal cord arterial filling. Examination of the relative importance of either both common carotid arteries alone or both subclavian arteries alone, in terms of their adequacy of subsequent arterial filling of the spinal cord, showed severe impairment of spinal cord perfusion with either technique. Thus perfusion of both common carotid arteries resulted in only the proximal 30% of the spinal cord arteries being filled, whereas perfusion SB-3CT of both subclavian arteries resulted in only the proximal 40% of the spinal cord arteries being filled.

Conclusions: Approaches to antegrade cerebral perfusion using the brachiocephalic and left common carotid arteries together gave

good perfusion of both the brain and the spinal cord. Brachiocephalic perfusion alone gave good cerebral perfusion but showed some significant limitation in spinal cord perfusion with one vascular marker. Complete spinal cord perfusion with all markers under conditions of antegrade cerebral perfusion required some contribution from both the carotid system and the subclavian system together. Selected perfusion of either system alone was very inadequate for spinal cord perfusion. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;141:1070-6)”
“Genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed two separable long-term memory pathways defined as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-lasting long-term memory (LLTM). ARM is disrupted in radish (rsh) mutants, whereas LLTM requires CREB-dependent protein synthesis.

Consequently, oxidative stress in cells and tissues is a central

Consequently, oxidative stress in cells and tissues is a central mechanism by which PM exposure leads to injury, disease, and mortality.”
“We analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of detoxifying

enzymes and enzymes of the ascorbate (ASC) acid cycle in avocado fruit (Pesea Americana Mill cv Hass) in response to wounding. The levels of superoxide anion (O(2) buy Verubecestat (-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH(.)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased at 15 min and 2 and 15 h post-wounding. Peroxidase (POD) activity had increased to high levels 24 h after wounding; in contrast, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels hat decreased significantly at 24 h post-treatment. Basic POD was the major POD form induced, and the levels of at least three apoplastic POD isozymes -increased

following wounding. Using specific inhibitors, we characterized NU7441 supplier one MnSOD and two CuZnSOD isozymes. CuZnSOD activities decreased notably 12 h after treatment. The activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase increased dramatically following the wounding treatment, possibly as a means to compensate for the redox changes due to ROS production.”
“The rising median age of our population and the age-dependent risk of neurodegeneration translate to exponentially increasing numbers of afflicted individuals in the coming years. Although symptomatic treatments are available for some neurodegenerative diseases, most are only moderately efficacious and are often associated with significant side effects. The development of small molecule, disease-modifying drugs has been hindered by complex pathogenesis and a failure to clearly define the rate-limiting steps in disease progression. An

alternative approach is to directly target the mutant gene product or a defined causative protein. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) – with their diverse functionality, high target specificity, and relative ease of central nervous system (CNS) delivery – are uniquely positioned as potential therapies Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor for neurological diseases. Here we review the development of ASOs for the treatment of inherited neurodegenerative diseases.”
“The functional role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) and its cortical network in memory processes is discussed controversially. While Aggleton and Brown (1999) suggested a role for recognition and not recall, Van der Werf et al. (2003) suggested that this nucleus is functionally related to executive function and strategic retrieval, based on its connections to the prefrontal cortices (PFC). The present study used a lesion approach including patients with focal thalamic lesions to examine the functions of the MD, the intralaminar nuclei and the midline nuclei in memory processing. A newly designed pair association task was used, which allowed the assessment of recognition and cued recall performance.

Volume loss in thalamic nuclei was estimated as a predictor for alterations in memory performance.

In experiment 2, we aimed to replicate and enhance the effects ob

In experiment 2, we aimed to replicate and enhance the effects observed in experiment 1, and we also examined the effects of methylphenidate self-administration during adolescence on adult amphetamine-induced

zif268 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression.

Adolescent rats self-administered both cocaine and methylphenidate. There was no effect of adolescent drug self-administration on adult baseline or amphetamine-induced responding for a CR. However, both adolescent methylphenidate and cocaine self-administration increased amphetamine-induced locomotion. Adolescent methylphenidate SNS-032 self-administration also enhanced amphetamine-induced zif268 mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens.

Our findings suggest that repeated, behaviorally 5-Fluoracil in vitro contingent exposure to methylphenidate during adolescence enhances responsivity to the locomotor-stimulating and neuronal activating effects of amphetamine but not incentive motivation.”
“Electroencephalographic oscillations, with different spectral contents, recorded in various brain sites are assumed to play an important role in the information

processes underlying cognition as well as the abnormal brain functioning observed in nosological entities that affect neuronal connectivity such as schizophrenia. In the present study we investigated the interaction of EEG rhythms during the experience of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). For this purpose we analyzed data obtained from patients suffering from persistent AVHs, focusing on the mode that the phase of theta oscillations modulate the amplitude of the broad gamma EEG oscillations. Our results indicate increased phase coupling between theta and gamma rhythms observed in the left frontotemporal cortices during AVHs, under eyes closed condition. The average differences of theta-gamma coupling between hallucinatory and resting stages in the left temporal area were found to be statistically significant. These results suggest that a theta-gamma Endodeoxyribonuclease interaction may be involved in the production and experience of AVHs in patients suffering

from schizophrenia. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the mosquito-borne alphavirus that is the etiologic agent of massive outbreaks of arthralgic febrile illness that recently affected millions of people in Africa and Asia. The only CHIKV vaccine that has been tested in humans, strain 181/clone 25, is a live-attenuated derivative of Southeast Asian human isolate strain AF15561. The vaccine was immunogenic in phase I and II clinical trials; however, it induced transient arthralgia in 8% of the vaccinees. There are five amino acid differences between the vaccine and its parent, as well as five synonymous mutations, none of which involves cis-acting genome regions known to be responsible for replication or packaging.

The present study demonstrated the

patterns of theta rhyt

The present study demonstrated the

patterns of theta rhythm induced by passive translation in rats and suggested that the Type I theta rhythm could occur during non-voluntary locomotion. We further argued that the perception of actual self-motion may be the underlying mechanism that initiates and modulates type I theta. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Gonadal steroids organize the developing brain during a perinatal sensitive period and have enduring consequences for adult behavior. WZB117 molecular weight In male rodents testicular androgens are aromatized in neurons to estrogens and initiate multiple distinct cellular processes that ultimately determine the masculine phenotype. Within specific brain regions, overall cell number and dendritic morphology are the principal targets for hormonal organization. Recent advances have been made in elucidating the cellular mechanisms by which the neurological underpinnings of sexually dimorphic physiology and behavior are determined. These include estradiol-mediated prostaglandin synthesis, presynaptic release of glutamate, postsynaptic changes in glutamate receptors and changes in cell adhesion molecules. Sex differences in cell death are mediated by hormonal modulation of survival and

death factors such as TNF alpha and Bcl-2/BAX.”
“The complete MX69 in vitro genetic loss or pharmacological blockade of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in mice results in both altered behavioral performance and increased stress hormone secretion

Smoothened in response to stressful encounters such as forced swim test (FST) exposure. CB1 is expressed on nerve terminals belonging to different neurotransmitter systems, including the glutamatergic and GABAergic system, where it is able to suppress excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, respectively. In the current study, we used the conditional mutagenesis approach in mice to investigate the neurotransmitter systems involved in these behavioral and neuroendocrine phenotypes in regard to CB1 signaling. Mice lacking CB1 in cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1(-/-)) showed decreased passive stress coping (decreased immobility) in the FST, whereas mice lacking CB1 in principal forebrain neurons (CaMK-CB1(-/-)) and GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1(-/-)), respectively, behaved as littermate controls. However, we found increased FST-induced corticosterone secretion only in CaMK-CB1(-/-) mice, whereas Glu-CB1(-/-) and GABA-CB1(-/-) mice exhibited normal corticosterone release as compared to controls. Thus, behavioral and neuroendocrine acute stress coping in response to the FST is mainly influenced by CB1 signaling on different glutamatergic neuronal subpopulations, but not by CB1 on GABAergic neurons. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Results: Actin-beta-106/193/384 fragment levels were significantl

Results: Actin-beta-106/193/384 fragment levels were significantly increased in patients with cancer compared to those in healthy individuals (each p < 0.001). DNA integrity was significantly decreased in patients with cancer (p < 0.001). Cell-free

DNA fragment levels were not different when comparing patients with nonseminoma and seminoma (p > 0.24). ROC analysis demonstrated that cell-free DNA levels distinguished patients with cancer from healthy individuals with 87% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Even in 31 patients in whom the established serum tumor markers a-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, placental alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase PS-341 ic50 were normal cell-free DNA levels allowed us to distinguish between patients with cancer and healthy individuals with 84% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Cell-free DNA levels were more frequently increased in patients with clinical stage 3 than in patients with stage 1 or 2 disease (p < 0.046).

Conclusions: Cell-free DNA levels are increased in patients with testicular cancer and they allow the accurate discrimination of healthy individuals.

The high sensitivity of cell-free DNA could facilitate the management of testicular cancer, especially in patients with conventional tumor markers that are not increased.”
“It is presently unclear whether the antiseizure effects exerted by NSAIDs are totally dependent on COX inhibition or not. To clarify this point we investigated whether 7-methyl-2-phenylimidazoi(1,2-b)pyridazine-3-carboxylic check details acid (DM1) and 6-methoxy-2-phenylimidazo(1,2-b)pyridazine-3-carboxylic acid (DM2), two imidazo(1,2-b)pyridazines structurally related to indomethacin (IDM) but ineffective in blocking COXs, retain IDM antiabsence activity. When administered by intraperitoneal injection in WAG/Rij rats, a rat strain which spontaneously develops

SWDs, both DM1 and DM2 dose-dependently suppressed the occurrence of these seizures. Importantly, these compounds were both more potent in suppressing SWD occurrence than IDM. As T-type channel blockade is considered a mechanism of action common to many antiabsence Cyclooxygenase (COX) drugs we explored by whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology in stably transfected HEK-293 the effect of DM1 and DM2 on Cav3.1 channels, the T-type channel subtype preferentially expressed in ventrobasal thalamic nuclei. Both these compounds dose-dependently suppressed the currents elicited by membrane depolarization in these cells. A similar T-type blocking effect was also observed when the cells were exposed to IDM. In conclusion, DM1 and DM2 whilst inactive on COXs, are potent antiabsence drugs. This suggests that compounds with structural features typical of NSAIDs may exert antiepileptic activity independently from COX inhibition and possibly by a direct interaction with T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Recognition of the typical radiological features of IgG4-related

Recognition of the typical radiological features of IgG4-related disease, such as well-defined lesion borders, T2 hypointensity, homogeneous and gradual enhancement pattern, absence of vascular occlusion or compression, and presence of bone remodeling without destruction, may be of help in the diagnosis of this benign clinical entity.”
“T helper (Th) 17 cells represent a third effector arm of CD4 T cells and complement the function of the Th1 and Th2 cell CB-5083 lineages. Here, we provide an overview of the transcription factors, cytokines, chemokines, and cytokine and chemokine receptors

that characterize the Th 17 cell phenotype. Data relevant for human Th17 cells are emphasized, with

a focus on the function of two markers that have recently been associated with human Th17 cells, Tariquidar in vivo CD161 and interleukin-4-induced gene 1 (IL4I1). Also considered is the basis of Th17 cell plasticity towards the Th1 lineage, and we suggest that this plasticity together with the limited expansion of Th17 cells in response to T cell receptor (TCR) triggering accounts for the rarity of human Th17 cells in inflamed tissues.”
“The relationship between cardiovascular stress reactivity and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) has been established in adults, but not yet studied in children. Cardiovascular reactivity to an ad lib speech was measured in 20 boys and 20 girls age 11.0 +/- 1.4 years. Measures included heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure reactivity, and mean common carotid Alectinib solubility dmso artery IMT. Sequential regression analyses were used to establish the incremental increase in R(2) (R(inc)(2)) for the

prediction of IMT due to cardiovascular reactivity independent of age, socioeconomic status, race, percentage body fat, and baseline BP or HR. SBP reactivity (beta=0.002, (R(inc)(2)) = 0.10, p <.05), but not DBP reactivity (p=.12) or HR reactivity (p=.82), independently predicted carotid artery IMT. This study provides initial evidence that SBP reactivity is associated with IMT and perhaps the early pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in childhood.”
“Kidney diseases manifest in progressive loss of renal function, which ultimately leads to complete kidney failure. The mechanisms underlying the origins and progression of kidney diseases are not fully understood. Multiple factors involved in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases have made the traditional candidate gene approach of limited value toward full understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these diseases. A systems biology approach that integrates computational modeling with large-scale data gathering of the molecular changes could be useful in identifying the multiple interacting genes and their products that drive kidney diseases.

Since the tuberomammillary nucleus is the exclusive origin of his

Since the tuberomammillary nucleus is the exclusive origin of histaminergic neurons, MLN0128 we further investigated whether CN2 is present in the histaminergic neurons. We found that CN2-immunoreactivity was colocalized with that of histidine decarboxylase, which is the key enzyme for histamine biosynthesis specifically expressed in the histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus. These results suggest that CN2 is highly expressed in the histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus, implying that it may supply histidine

to histaminergic neurons for histamine synthesis. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All Fights reserved.”
“Viral breakthrough is a recognized response pattern to interferon-based antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The emergence of drug-resistant HCV quasispecies variants is assumed to be a major mechanism responsible for viral breakthrough. By using a long reverse transcription-PCR protocol recently developed in our lab, multiple nearly full-length HCV quasispecies variants were

generated from 9.1-kb Selonsertib amplicons at both the baseline and breakthrough points in two patients experiencing viral breakthrough. Comparative analyses of consensus dominant quasispecies variants revealed that most mutations, occurring at the time of breakthrough, involved three functional viral genes, E2, NS2, and NS5a. Interestingly, similar mutation patterns were also observed in minor quasispecies variants at baseline. These three genes had the highest values of average amino acid complexity AMP deaminase at

the HCV 1a population level. No single amino acids were identified to be associated with viral breakthrough. Taken together, at the near-full-length HCV genome level, our data suggested that viral breakthrough might be attributed to the selection of minor quasispecies variants at the baseline with or without additional mutations during antiviral therapy. Furthermore, the pattern for mutation clustering indicated potential mutation linkage among E2, NS2, and NS5a due to structural or functional relatedness in HCV replication.”
“Previous work has shown that the frequency of climbing behavior in rats Submitted to the forced swimming test (FST) correlated to the section’s crosses in the open field test, which suggest it might be taken as a predictor of motor activity in rat FST. To investigate this proposal, the frequency, duration, as well as the ratio duration/frequency for each behavior expressed in the FST (immobility, swimming and climbing) were compared in animals treated with a motor stimulant, caffeine (CAF), and the antidepressant, clomipramine (CLM). Male Wistar rats were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pre-test) and 24 h later received saline (SAL, I ml/kg, i.p.) or CAF (6.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior a 5-min session (test) of FST. To validate experimental Procedures, an additional group of rats received three injections of SAL (I ml/kg, i.p.) or clomipramine (CLM, 10 mg/kg, i.p.