2b). This indicates
that the weak cytotoxic activities of these mutants are due to attenuation of the affinity of mutant alpha-toxin to the GPI-anchored protein. Because WDW_W is the most important sequence in the tryptophan-rich region, hydrophobicity and electrical charge in the side chain of these four amino acids would affect cytotoxic activity. Researchers have shown that the cytotoxic mechanisms and primary structure of C. septicum alpha-toxin are similar to those of Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin [6, 8]. Although the receptor of aerolysin on cell membranes is also a GPI-anchored protein , N-glycan on GPI-anchored proteins is required for efficient binding of aerolysin; however, binding of alpha-toxin is independent of N-glycan . Aerolysin has a tryptophan-rich region (GEVKWWDWNWT) selleck products that is similar to that of alpha-toxin near the C-terminus, and possesses the same sequence in this
region, WDW_W, which should be an important sequence for binding of alpha-toxin to cell receptors. With the exception of WDW_W, the amino acid sequence in Tanespimycin chemical structure the tryptophan-rich region of alpha-toxin does not exhibit identity with that of aerolysin. Therefore, this difference may determine whether N-glycan is indispensable for binding of alpha-toxin and aerolysin to GPI-anchored proteins. This work was supported in part by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The authors have no conflicts of interest associated with this study. “
“B-cell-activating MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit factor (BAFF) influences peripheral B-cell survival, maturation and immunoglobulin class-switch recombination and has a range of potential clinical implications. Biological functions of BAFF and its relevance in various clinical disorders including currently investigated BAFF-targeting therapies are reviewed and discussed based on PubMed search of relevant articles. Serum levels of BAFF are increased in autoimmune diseases including autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis where BAFF concentrations are
related to titres of autoantibodies and disease progression. Increased BAFF levels are found in synovial, bronchoalveolar and gut lavage fluids, suggesting local class switching and immunoglobulin production. Clinical relevance and diagnostic potential of BAFF are also noted in patients with allergic diseases, malignancies and infections including hepatitis C virus. BAFF antagonists are promising new therapeutic agents, currently being tried in B-cell-related autoimmune diseases. Serum level of BAFF may indicate disease mechanisms and the degree of activity. Determination of BAFF in different body compartments like synovium, airways and gut may also have clinical implications. Results of ongoing clinical trials with BAFF antagonists are eagerly awaited. B-cell lymphocytes play a major role in the humoral immune response.