“A simple, selective and robust reverse phase high perform

“A simple, selective and robust reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem

mass spectrometry Dinaciclib order (ESI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of pioglitazone (PIO), pioglitazone metabolite M-IV – hydroxypioglitazone (OH-PIO) and metformin (MET) in human plasma using deuterated internal standards (IS) is developed and fully validated as per industrial practices. After acetonitrile-induced protein precipitation of the plasma samples; PIO, OH-PIO, MET and IS were chromatographed on reverse phase column and analyzed in the multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode. The ion transitions were monitored at m/z 357.2 -> 134.2 for PIO, 373.0 -> 150.1 for OH-PIO, 130.2 -> 71.0 for MET, 361.1 -> 134.2 for PIO-IS and 136.1 -> 77.1 for MET-IS. The total chromatographic run time was 4.0 min. A linear response function (r > 0.998) was established for the range of concentrations 15-2500 ng/mL, 10-1500 ng/mL and 25-3000 ng/mL for PIO, OH-PIO and MET respectively in human plasma. The intra and inter-day precision and accuracy values have met the set acceptance

criteria. The method is simple, selective, robust economic and has been applied successfully to more than 2000 plasma samples as part of pharmacokinetic study in humans. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The human cerebellum Selleck FDA-approved Drug Library has been implicated in the control of a wide variety of motor control parameters, such as force amplitude, movement extent, and movement velocity. These parameters often covary in both movement and isometric force production tasks, so it is difficult to resolve whether specific regions of the cerebellum relate to specific parameters. SBC-115076 solubility dmso In order to address this issue, the current study used two experiments and SUIT normalization to determine whether BOLD activation in the cerebellum scales with the amplitude or rate of change of isometric force production or both. In the first experiment, subjects produced isometric pinch-grip force over a range of force amplitudes without any constraints on the rate of force development.

In the second experiment, subjects varied the rate of force production, but the target force amplitude remained constant. The data demonstrate that BOLD activation in separate sub-areas of cerebellar regions lobule VI and Crus I/II scales with both force amplitude and force rate. In addition, BOLD activation in cerebellar lobule V and vermis VI was specific to force amplitude, whereas BOLD activation in lobule VIIb was specific to force rate. Overall, cerebellar activity related to force amplitude was located superior and medial, whereas activity related to force rate was inferior and lateral. These findings suggest that specific circuitry in the cerebellum may be dedicated to specific motor control parameters such as force amplitude and force rate. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc.

However, the genome comparisons revealed numerous unique variatio

However, the genome comparisons revealed numerous unique variations (e. g., different numbers of potential 2A peptides, unusually long 3 ‘ genome parts with various lengths of a potential second open reading frame, and multiple repeating sequence motifs in the 3 ‘ untranslated region) and heterogeneous sequence relationships between the structural and nonstructural genome regions. These differences suggest the classification of chicken megrivirus-like viruses into a candidate novel species in the genus Megrivirus. Based on the different phylogenetic positions of chicken megrivirus-like

find protocol viruses at the structural and nonstructural genome regions, the recombinant nature of these viruses is plausible.”
“The carbon (C) isotope signature of solid materials such as plants and soil, or gaseous samples (atmospheric or soil air), can be used as a useful tool for investigations of the C cycle. In gaseous samples, stability of delta C-13 of carbon dioxide (CO2) in air during storage represents a problem. We tested the long-term storage effect of delta C-13 originated from CO2 in vials both capped

with butyl or butyl coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on the internal surface. Therefore, pure CO2, depleted in C-13, was stored for up to 736 days. In addition, the relevance of long-term storage for ecological soil air data collected from a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment located in Stuttgart (Germany) during one AG-881 datasheet growing period with a maximum storage period of 210 days was judged. With increasing storage time, a change in isotopic composition

SRT1720 order towards less depleted delta C-13 was observed. The changes in delta C-13 were highest at the beginning of the storage period and decreased over time, which could be described with an asymptotic model. The maximum change in delta C-13 was less than 2 aEuro degrees and lower for vials capped with butyl/PTFE septa. In the FACE experiment, the comparison between corrected and uncorrected data showed that delta C-13 originated from soil air changed within this data set by up to 1 aEuro degrees. The calculation of the fraction of plant derived C resulted in an underestimation of up to 10 %. The storage effect should be taken into consideration when interpreting delta C-13 values in order to avoid miscalculations.”
“A common challenge in phylogenetic reconstruction is to find enough suitable genomic markers to reliably trace splitting events with short internodes. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses based on genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of an enigmatic avian radiation, the subspecies complex of Afrocanarian blue tits (Cyanistes teneriffae). The two sister species, the Eurasian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and the azure tit (Cyanistes cyanus), constituted the out-group. We generated a large data set of SNPs for analysis of population structure and phylogeny.

Cask is a downstream target gene of FOXO1 Using INS-1 cells with

Cask is a downstream target gene of FOXO1. Using INS-1 cells with palmitate-induced insulin-release defects, we investigated the relationship between FOXO1 and Cask. Methods The expression levels and location of calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) and FOXO1 were evaluated by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. The regulation of Cask by FOXO1 was examined using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase assays. Potassium-stimulated insulin-secretion assays were used to verify the function of INS-1 cells and islets. Electron microscopy was used to establish the anchoring process of

the insulin granules after CASK knockdown in islets. Results Palmitic acid reduced CASK levels and increased FOXO1 levels. Selleck 3-MA ChIP and luciferase assays demonstrated FOXO1 binding with the Cask promoter, which was enhanced by palmitate treatment. CASK knockdown reduced insulin release in INS-1 cells and primary islets, and Cask overexpression reversed the palmitate-induced insulin reduction. CASK knockdown attenuated forskolin-enhanced insulin release, but Cask overexpression did not change the insulin-secretion suppression induced by nifedipine. In pancreatic islet beta cells, CASK knockdown reduced the anchoring

of insulin vesicles to cell membranes. Conclusions/interpretation The induction of beta cell insulin-secretion LY2606368 clinical trial defects by fatty acids is mediated, at least in part, by FOXO1 via downregulation

of Cask expression. It is characterised mainly as an obstruction of the anchoring of insulin granules to beta cell membranes.”
“Allergic contact dermatitis from nonpermanent black henna tattoos has been frequently reported, particularly in children. Contamination or adulteration of the dyes with para-phenylendiamine has been identified as major cause of active sensitization and elicitation of severe allergic contact dermatitis. Sequelae include permanent sensitization, hyper- or hypopigmentation, scarring, keloids, and hypertrichosis. We report a rare case of irritant dermatitis to an unknown ingredient in a black henna tattoo with consecutive hypopigmentation. Sensitization to para-phenylendiamine and other para-compounds this website was excluded by patch test evaluation. This is relevant for future exposure to consumer products such as hair dyes or in occupational settings. Generally, black henna tattoos, particularly if done with dyes of unknown composition, should be strongly discouraged.”
“Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an early sign of vascular dysfunction. Studies have reported a correlation between arterial stiffness and cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association among different criteria for assessing arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors in ED patients.

A histopathological diagnostic, which determines the further mana

A histopathological diagnostic, which determines the further management of patients with PNENs, must be necessarily confirmed by immunohistochemical tests. PNENs therapy requires collaboration between a multidisciplinary team of specialists experienced in the management of these neoplasms. Surgery is the basic form of treatment. Medical therapy requires a multidirectional procedure, and therefore the rules of biotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy are discussed.”
“Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium

that is ubiquitous in the environment, and it is an opportunistic pathogen that can infect a variety of hosts, including learn more humans. During the process of infection, Pseudomonas BEZ235 purchase aeruginosa coordinates the expression of numerous virulence factors through the production of multiple cell-to-cell signaling molecules. The production of these signaling molecules is linked through a regulatory network, with the signal N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone and its receptor LasR controlling the induction of a second acyl-homoserine lactone signal and the Pseudomonas

quinolone signal (PQS). LasR-mediated control of PQS occurs partly by activating the transcription of pqsR, a gene that encodes the PQS receptor and is necessary for PQS production. We show that LasR interacts with a single binding site in the pqsR promoter region and that it does not influence the transcription of the divergently transcribed gene, nadA. Using DNA affinity chromatography, we identified additional proteins that interact with the pqsR-nadA intergenic region. These include the H-NS family members MvaT and MvaU, and CysB, a transcriptional regulator that controls sulfur uptake and cysteine biosynthesis. We show that CysB

interacts with the pqsR promoter and that CysB represses pqsR transcription PF-03084014 research buy and PQS production. Additionally, we provide evidence that CysB can interfere with the activation of pqsR transcription by LasR. However, as seen with other CysB-regulated genes, pqsR expression was not differentially regulated in response to cysteine levels. These findings demonstrate a novel role for CysB in influencing cell-to-cell signal production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IMPORTANCE The production of PQS and other 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolone (HAQs) compounds is a key component of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell-to-cell signaling network, impacts multiple physiological functions, and is required for virulence. PqsR directly regulates the genes necessary for HAQ production, but little is known about the regulation of pqsR. We identified CysB as a novel regulator of pqsR and PQS production, but, unlike other CysB-controlled genes, it does not appear to regulate pqsR in response to cysteine. This implies that CysB functions as both a cysteine-responsive and cysteine-unresponsive regulator in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

948 (2), 4 000 (2), 3 948 (2), 3 911 (2), 3 897 (2), 3 984 (2) an

948 (2), 4.000 (2), 3.948 (2), 3.911 (2), 3.897 (2), 3.984 (2) and 3.929 (2) angstrom]. Intra- and intermolecular C-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonding occurs. The water molecule [occupancies 0.520 (5) and 0.480 (5)], two carbonyl O atoms [occupancies 0.622 (7) and 0.378 (7)] and the four perchlorate O atoms [occupancies 0.887 (4) and 0.113

(4)] are each disordered over two positions.”
“Citrinin (CIT) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin initially isolated from filamentous fungus Penicillin citrinum. It was later isolated from several other species, such as Aspergillus and Monascus. It has a conjugated, planar structure that gives it a natural fluorescence ability, which can be selleck screening library used to develop sensitive methods for detecting CIT in food. In this paper, we used the spectrofluorescence technique to study the effects of pH value, beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and organic solvents on the CIT fluorescence intensity. VX-770 price The results show that lower pH value, aceitc acid, beta-CD and acetonitrile can induce a higher fluorescence intensity of CIT, but methanol or H2O has a decreasing effect on the fluorescence

intensity of CIT. Findings in this study provide a theoretical basis for development of a high sensitivity fluorescence-based trace analysis for CIT detection. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of 4 homogenous overlapping drug-eluting stents (DES) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. We selected 1,349 consecutive patients www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2606368.html (62.1 +/- 14.9

yr. 69.4% male) who received homogenous overlapping DESs in diffuse de novo coronary lesions from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from April 2006 through September 2010. They were divided into 4 groups based on type of DES implanted – Paclitaxel (PES), Sirolimus (SES), Zotarolimus (ZES) and Everolimus (EES)-eluting stents. Primary endpoint was 12-month MACE. We also studied EES versus other DESs (PES + SES + ZES). Mean stent length was 26.2 +/- 7.5 mm and mean stent diameter was 3.1 +/- 0.4 mm. Average number of stents used per vessel was 2.2 +/- 0.5. Incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in PES, SES, ZES, and EES groups were 9.5%, 9.2%, 7.5%, and 3.8%, respectively (P=0.013). In EES group, overall MACE and repeat revascularization were lowest, and no incidence of stent thrombosis was observed. Non-fatal MI was highest in PES, almost similar in SES and EES with no incidence in ZES group (P=0.044). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed no differences in the incidence of primary endpoint (P=0.409). This study shows no significant differences in 12-month MACE among 4 groups.”
“The very strong relationship between suicide, depressive disorders, and substance use disorders is well recognized. Certain pain syndromes are significantly associated with suicide, irrespective of co-occurring medical or psychiatric diagnosis.

Our results confirm expectations from studies of Rad10-Rad1 in bu

Our results confirm expectations from studies of Rad10-Rad1 in budding yeast that ERCC1-XPF activity affects conversion tract length, and provide evidence for the mechanism of generation

of the novel, aberrant recombinant class first described in our previous study. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Context: The pathogenesis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is largely unknown.\n\nObjective: The objective buy GS-7977 of the study was to ascertain the plasma levels of calcium, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) as measured prior to a clinical diagnosis of PHPT.\n\nStudy Subjects: Within three population-based cohorts, we identified participants diagnosed with PHPT after

their inclusion. Cases (n = 117) were compared with age, gender, and season-matched controls (n = 233).\n\nResults: Time from inclusion until a diagnosis of PHPT was median 5.6 yr. Parathyroidectomy was performed in 97%. At the cohort inclusion, undiagnosed selleckchem PHPT was present in 63% of the cases. Among those without PHPT at inclusion (n = 43), 55% had normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (vs. 21% in the matched controls, P < 0.01), and 31% had normoparathyroid hypercalcemia. Overall, 25OHD levels were lower in the cases. Compared with their matched controls, 25OHD levels were lower in normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism but not in normoparathyroid hypercalcemia. An adenoma was removed from 78% of the cases with normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism, whereas 39% of the cases with normoparathyroid hypercalcemia PF-562271 had parathyroid hyperplasia (P = 0.02). Overlap performance showed a positive predictive value for later PHPT of 95% for plasma calcium levels greater than 2.52 mmol/liter. Excluding cases with vitamin D insufficiency, the positive predictive value for later PHPT was 83% for PTH levels greater than 5.0 pmol/liter.\n\nConclusion: Years prior to a clinical

diagnosis of PHPT, calcium homeostasis shows signs of perturbations. Latent PHPT may be characterized by either normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism or normoparathyroid hypercalcemia. Such patients should be offered long-term follow-up to ascertain whether their biochemical profile represents an early state of PHPT. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98: 87-96, 2013)”
“A genomic library was constructed to clone a xylanase gene (Mxyn10) from Demequina sp. JK4 isolated from a deep sea. Mxyn10 encoded a 471 residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 49 kDa. This protein showed the highest sequence identify (70%) with the xylanase from Streptomyces lividans. Mxyn10 contains a catalytic domain that belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) belonging to family 2. The optimum pH and temperature for enzymatic activity were pH 5.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively.

Cyclic carbonate groups are currently gaining increasing attentio

Cyclic carbonate groups are currently gaining increasing attention both from academic and industrial communities. Indeed, C59 Wnt ic50 these functions allow better control in terms of spontaneous crosslinking reactions than other reactive groups and could also come from renewable resources such as glycerine or CO2. Although many papers

report the use of cyclic carbonates for synthesis of linear polyurethanes, this present review is the first one that focuses on the synthesis and use of functional cyclocarbonate molecules. In the first part, the present review goes into details of the synthesis of carbonate groups. In the second part, this review is dedicated to the synthesis and the application of various monomers bearing cyclic carbonate groups to polymers.”
“Background: Risk factors for ventricular

arrhythmias after cardiac resynchronization defibrillator therapy (CRT-D) for severely symptomatic heart failure are of clinical importance but are not clearly defined. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that mechanical dyssynchrony after Napabucasin JAK/STAT inhibitor CRT-D is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias. Methods: A total of 266 consecutive CRT-D patients with class III or IV heart failure, QRS duration bigger than = 120 msec, and ejection fractions smaller than = 35% were prospectively studied. Dyssynchrony was assessed before and 6 months after CRT-D using speckle-tracking radial strain anteroseptal-to-posterior

wall delay, predefined as bigger than = 130 msec. Ventricular arrhythmias were predefined as appropriate antitachycardia pacing or shock, and the combined end point of ventricular arrhythmias, death, transplantation, or left ventricular assist device implantation was followed over 2 years. Results: Of the initial 266 patients, 11 died, five underwent transplantation, three received left ventricular assist devices before their 6-month echocardiographic examinations, 19 (7%) had inadequate speckle-tracking at 6-month follow-up, and 27 (10%) were lost to follow-up. Accordingly, the study group consisted of 201 patients. Dyssynchrony after CRT-D was observed in 79 (39%) and was associated with a significantly higher ventricular arrhythmic event rate: 21% (P smaller than .001) with persistent Stem Cell Compound Library clinical trial dyssynchrony and 35% (P smaller than .001) with new dyssynchrony, compared with 8% with no dyssynchrony after CRT-D. The combined end point of ventricular arrhythmias, death, transplantation, or left ventricular assist device implantation was significantly associated with dyssynchrony after CRT-D (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-4.28; P=.001). Dyssynchrony after CRT-D was associated with ventricular arrhythmias or death in patient subgroups by cardiomyopathy type, QRS width, and morphology (P smaller than .05 for all).

Materials were synthesized by conventional solid state route and

Materials were synthesized by conventional solid state route and showed bright orange-red emission under UV excitation. Emission spectra contain sharp and well resolved Sm3+

(4)G(5/2)-> H-6(J) transitions indicating a strong crystal-field effect. In case of gadolinium compound energy transfer between Gd3+ and Sm3+ was detected. The luminescent kinetics of the Sm3+ in analyzed powders is characterized by single exponential decay and experimental values vary in the range 2.2-2.4 ms. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Oxidative damage has been proposed as one of the possible mechanisms involved in the development of dialysis-related complications. Strengthening the defense system by supplementing antioxidants selleck chemical selleck chemicals may provide protection against oxidative damage. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate oxidant and antioxidant status in chronic renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis and the effect of UbiQ(100) supplementation on oxidant and antioxidant status. The blood samples were analyzed for quantitation of MDA as index of lipid peroxide, nitric oxide, vitamin E and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Significantly increased levels of serum lipid peroxide and decreased levels

of nitric oxide, vitamin E, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were noticed in the patients both before and after hemodialysis, as compared to control subjects. However, significant reduction in lipid peroxide and improvement in nitric Dinaciclib purchase oxide, vitamin E and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were observed after supplementary treatment

of UbiQ(100).”
“Aim of the study: Atherosclerosis represents active inflammation in which leukocytes play significant role. Coronary collateral development is a response to myocardial ischaemia. In this study we aimed to investigate the association of the leukocytes with coronary collateral development in patients with non ST-elevated acute coronary syndromes (NST-ACS). Material and methods: A total of 251 consecutive patients were hospitalized in our hospital with a diagnosis of NST-ACS. The blood samples were collected 1-hour after admission to the hospital and peripheral leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) were examined. All patients underwent coronary angiography. The coronary collateral vessels (CCV) are graded according to the Rentrop scoring system. Results: Group 1 consisted of 146 patients with Rentrop 0 and Group 2 consisted of 105 patients with Rentrop I, 2 and 3. The presence of CCV was significantly associated with neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). In subgroup analyses, higher NLR was significantly associated with good CCV development in patients with NST-ACS.

The dated tree allowed to date the transmission events with good

The dated tree allowed to date the transmission events with good approximation, the time point and direction of each transmission, estimated on the basis of the phylogeny, and agreed with the presumptive time of infection on the basis of clinical history-taking. (C) 2010 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Leaf water 18O enrichment is an important factor controlling the H218O, C18OO, and O18O

exchanges between the biosphere and the atmosphere. At present, there is limited capacity to explain the enrichment mechanisms in field conditions. In this study, three models of varying complexity were used to simulate the leaf water 18O enrichment at the canopy scale. Comparisons were made among the models and AG-881 mouse with high-frequency isotopic measurements of ecosystem water pools in wheat and corn. The results show that the steady state assumption was a better approximation for ecosystems with lower canopy resistance, that it is important to consider the effect

BAY 73-4506 in vitro of leaf water turnover in modeling the enrichment and not necessary to deal with time changes in leaf water content, and that the leaf-scale Peclet effect was incompatible with the big-leaf modeling framework for canopy-air interactions. After turbulent diffusion has been accounted for in an apparent kinetic factor parameterization, the mean 18O composition of the canopy foliage water was a well-behaved property predictable according to the principles established by leaf-scale studies, despite substantial variations in the leaf water enrichment with AG-120 leaf and canopy positions. In the online supplement we provided a discussion on the observed variability of leaf water 18O composition with leaf and canopy positions and on the procedure for correcting isotopic measurements for organic contamination.”
“The trichorhinophalangeal syndromes (TRPSs) are rare hereditary diseases with mainly autosomal dominant inheritance. Three different forms

sharing similar clinical features with heterogeneous mutations have been identified: type I (TRPS I), type II (TRPS II) and type III (TRPS III). These syndromes have characteristic facial abnormalities such as sparse and slow-growing scalp hair, laterally sparse eyebrows, bulbous pear-shaped nose, elongated and flat philtrum, thin upper lip, and protruding ears. Various skeletal abnormalities are also frequently noted: short stature, shortening of the phalanges and metacarpals, cone-shaped epiphyses and Perthes-like change of the hips.<link rid=”b1 b2 b3 b4″>1-4 The TRPS1 gene was first identified in 2000 and mapped to 8q24.1.<link rid=”b1″>1 More than 50 mutations have been found in the gene to date. We here report mutation analysis of eight patients with the typical phenotype of TRPS I, revealing five novel mutations.

“Background : Nationwide external quality assessment (EQA)

“Background : Nationwide external quality assessment (EQA) of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in Korea was first introduced in 2007-2009. The EQA results were analyzed to assess the current status of FOBT and to plan the continuation of the EQA program.\n\nMethods : The surveys included 40 hospitals in the preliminary survey conducted in 2007, 249 general hospitals in 2008, and 389 hospitals in 2009. In the surveys, the participating hospitals provided the results of the distributed materials and replies to the questionnaire on the FOBT test procedures and quality controls.\n\nResults : In the surveys conducted between 2007 and 2009, a total of 650 institutes submitted 653 test system results; 3 institutes

used 2 kinds of methods. All of the institutes used immunologic methods; 107 institutes (16.5%) used quantitative equipments and 546 institutes (84.0%) used qualitative kits. Most quantitative tests yielded consistent positive selleck inhibitor or negative results; however, their cutoff and measured values differed according to the equipments used. A low-level

material tested in 2007 was negative in the quantitative methods but positive Selleckchem Vorinostat in some qualitative methods because of lower detection limits. The discordance rates among quantitative tests were 3.2% in 2007, 4.4% in 2008, and 0% in 2009 and the rates among qualitative tests were 13.8% in 2008 and 2.6% in 2009. Semi-solid EQA materials showed the ability to evaluate the overall test procedures with acceptable stability.\n\nConclusions mTOR inhibitor : In the first Korean FOBT EQA, commercially available EQA materials were proven to be stable.

Continuation of the EQA program and further education of laboratory personnel are needed to reduce inconsistency in results. Further, the test kit, procedures, and result reports must be standardized. (Korean J Lab Med 2010;30:726-33)”
“Acidosis, hypothermia and hypocalcaemia are determinants for morbidity and mortality during massive hemorrhages. However, precise pathological mechanisms of these environmental factors and their potential additive or synergistic anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet effects are not fully elucidated and are at least in part controversial. Best available evidences from experimental trials indicate that acidosis and hypothermia progressively impair platelet aggregability and clot formation. Considering the cell-based model of coagulation physiology, hypothermia predominantly prolongs the initiation phase, while acidosis prolongs the propagation phase of thrombin generation. Acidosis increases fibrinogen breakdown while hypothermia impairs its synthesis. Acidosis and hypothermia have additive effects. The effect of hypocalcaemia on coagulopathy is less investigated but it appears that below the cut-off of 0.9 mmol/L, several enzymatic steps in the plasmatic coagulation system are blocked while above that cut-off effects remain without clinical sequalae.