Our results indicate that reduced potency of sofosbuvir against g

Our results indicate that reduced potency of sofosbuvir against genotype-3 HCV may have contributed to its limited efficacy in genotype-3 HCV patients,

and that ACH-3422 has greater potency against genotype-3 HCV suggesting the potential for improved clinical efficacy. Methods: Potency of ACH-3422 and sofosbuvir was assessed in parallel against HCV replicons with NS5B from representative geno-type-1 through genotype-4 strains. Potency was also compared against a panel of chimeric HCV replicons incorporating NS5B from genotype-3 clinical isolates. Results: ACH-3422 displayed an EC50 of 50 nM and a selective index of >500 in a cell line harboring a genotype-1b replicon. High potency was retained HM781-36B in vivo against a panel of replicons carrying NS5B from representative strains of genotypes 1 through 4. As compared to sofosbuvir, ACH-3422 exhibited 1-fold (genotype-2), 2-fold to 3-fold (genotypes 1a, 1b and 4) and 7-fold (genotype-3) higher potency. To confirm the significantly higher potency of ACH-3422 than sofosbuvir against genotype-3 NS5B, additional replicons incorporating NS5B from genotype-3 clinical isolates

were constructed and examined for mTOR inhibitor susceptibility. The results showed a consistently and significantly higher potency of ACH-3422 than sofosbuvir. Conclusions: ACH-3422 demonstrates as high as 7-fold greater potency than sofosbuvir against several gen-otype-3 clinical isolates in vitro. These results suggest that the combination of ACH-3422 and ribavirin for 12 weeks has the potential for improved efficacy over sofosbuvir in genotype-3 hepatitis C patients. Disclosures: selleck inhibitor Wengang Yang – Employment: Achillion Pharmaceuticals; Stock Shareholder: Achillion Pharmaceuticals Jason Wiles – Employment: Achillion Pharmaceuticals Mingjun Huang – Employment: Achillion Pharmaceuticals The following people have nothing to disclose: Yongsen Zhao, Steven Podos, Joanne L. Fabrycki, Dharaben Patel, Guangwei Yang, Avinash Phadke Background and Aims: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease with an estimated 185 million people

affected globally. NS5A inhibitors are potent direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) for HCV infection. However, earlier compounds suffered from a low genetic barrier to resistance in the clinic. We sought to identify a potent NS5A inhibitor with activity against all genotypes and previously identified resistance associated variants (RAVs). Methods: With the aid of a panel of sub-genomic and full-length replicon cell lines, NS5A lead inhibitors were iteratively optimized by monitoring potencies in replicons by qRT-PCR. Compounds with a higher genetic barrier were optimized based on their ability to inhibit all genotypes and previously described clinically relevant RAVs as well as suppress resistant colonies formation in replicons. Results: MK-8408 is a potent NS5A inhibitor with an EC50 <10 pM against HCV genotypes 1-6.

Because methylation analysis of CL tissue specimens was originall

Because methylation analysis of CL tissue specimens was originally performed

without the use of microdissection, we assumed that a “dilution effect” by nonparenchymal cells (mainly fibrocytes and fibroblasts) might conceal hypermethylation of hepatocytes in these samples. However, even improved analysis employing microdissected CL samples of the same tissue specimens failed to confirm promoter hypermethylation as the cause of AKAP12 down-regulation in CL and DN. In search of posttranscriptional mechanisms for AKAP12 find more down-regulation we detected an alternative regulatory mechanism in CL and DN by miR-183 and miR-186. Both of these miRNAs are up-regulated in the precancerous stages where promoter hypermethylation is absent; and, via a direct interaction with the AKAP12 transcript, both miRNAs can regulate mRNA levels to various degrees, with miR-186 demonstrating a strong ability to regulate endogenous transcript levels. Regarding the observed genetic and epigenetic alterations in HCC, this represents an interesting interplay between different epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the course of human hepatocarcinogenesis. A connection between epigenome and miRNome and alteration in the balance of this complicated network as a possible mechanism leading to cancer has been described recently.24 Additional mechanisms may also account for AKAP12 down-regulation.

In CL, it could be shown that a histone deacetylase inhibitor influences SSeCKS expression.25 Apart from aberrant patterns of histone modification, involvement of chromatin modifications in the expression of the AKAP12α isoform was recently shown Ceritinib price by its re-expression after treatment of mouse fibroblasts with a histone deacetylase

inhibitor.26 Different models this website support the hypothesis that CpG island methylation may follow histone modification to stably lock silenced genes.27 It is therefore conceivable that the observed de novo DNA methylation of the AKAP12α promoter in HCCs may be also triggered by histone modifications which are already present in CL. In summary, the data presented here demonstrate that the tumor suppressor AKAP12 is down-regulated during hepatocarcinogenesis in a stepwise manner: early in cirrhosis and in premalignant lesions, and late in HCC dedifferentiation. We could identify different epigenetic mechanisms responsible for this stepwise down-regulation. In CL and DN, down-regulation of AKAP12 is at least partly caused by interaction of two specific miRNAs, whereas in HCC genetic loss and to a significant extent hypermethylation of the AKAP12α promoter are responsible for AKAP12 reduction. We thank Peter Waas, Anna-Lisa Lackner, and Otto Zelezny (Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factor, German Cancer Research Center), and Eva Eiteneuer and John Moyers (Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg) for their excellent technical assistance. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.

A detailed neurological examination would, therefore, be an impor

A detailed neurological examination would, therefore, be an important part of the clinical evaluation of orophagyngeal dysphagia. It is equally important to look for peripheral skin and joint stigmata of scleroderma, CREST syndrome or systemic connective tissue disease, as these patients are at risk of esophageal hypomotility. Medications such as dopamine antagonists and anti-cholinergic agonists can lead to xerostomia

and esophageal dysmotility. The presence of xerostomia should be enquired, as treatment is simple and effective. In elderly patients, pill-induced ulceration and stricture should be suspected for those who take bisphosphonates and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Finally, risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers such as smoking, alcohol use, ethnic background and known family Selleckchem Wnt inhibitor history of upper gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy should be noted. It is important to remember that although healthy aging is related to certain neuromuscular

changes, it rarely leads to clinically significant dysphagia.2 Therefore, the presence of oropharyngeal dysphagia will always require a search for an underlying cause (Table 1). The biggest clue to the cause of a patient’s oropharyngeal dysphagia lies with age. Development of oropharyngeal dysphagia in an elderly person (age > 70 years) may relate to either an acute neurological event such as a stroke, or a progressive BGJ398 neurological disease such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s. Zenker’s diverticulum is also more prevalent in the elderly. In contrast, degenerative motor neuron diseases must be suspected in younger patients. The causes of esophageal dysphagia can be broadly divided into either mechanical or dysmotility (Table 2). There selleck compound are, however, a number of conditions in which dysphagia is mediated by both mechanical and dysmotility mechanisms. Achalasia is a classic example of such a condition, where there is often a failure of peristalsis in the esophageal body with impaired

relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, leading to anatomical obstruction. Tumors in the region of the lower esophageal sphincter or gastric cardia can give rise to “pseudo-achalasia” with identical clinical presentation. Eosinophilic esophagitis has recently been recognized as an increasing common cause of dysphagia and food bolus impaction. Histologically, eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by marked eosinophilic infiltration and associated inflammation in the esophagus and, in patients with longstanding disease, marked fibrosis of the esophageal wall. This, in turn, can lead to significant “stiffening,” luminal narrowing, and impaired peristalsis of the esophagus. The diagnosis of this condition heavily relies on clinical awareness, endoscopic features and esophageal biopsies.

In multivariable models, LDLT recipients transplanted at experien

In multivariable models, LDLT recipients transplanted at experienced centers with autoimmune hepatitis or cholestatic liver disease had significantly less graft failure (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37-0.84 and HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63-0.92, respectively), and increased patient survival. An LDLT risk score facilitated stratification of LDLT recipients into high, intermediate, and low-risk groups, with predicted 3-year graft survival ranging from >87% in the lowest risk group to <74% in the highest risk group. Conclusions: Current post-transplant outcomes for LDLT are equivalent, if not superior to DDLT when performed at experienced centers. An LDLT risk score can be used to

optimize LDLT outcomes and provides objective selection criteria for donor selection in LDLT. Disclosures: David S. Goldberg – Grant/Research Support: Bayer Healthcare Ensartinib supplier The following people have nothing to disclose: Benjamin French, PI3K inhibitor Peter L. Abt, Kim M. Olthoff, Abraham Shaked Backgrounds: Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common after surgical resection. Anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is recently revealed to prevent hepatic carcinogenesis. However, whether anti-platelet therapy also determines the prognoses of patients with HCC after resection surgery is still obscure. Aims: This population-based study aimed to investigate the association between anti-platelet treatment and the

outcomes in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC after resection surgery. Method: By analyzing the data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 9,461 HBV-related HCC patients who underwent curative liver resection between January 1997

check details and December 2011. After one-to-four matching by sex, age and propensity score, 2,210 patients were enrolled for analyses. Kaplan-Meier method and modified Cox proportional hazard models were employed for survival and multivariable, strati- fied analyses. Results: The recurrence-free survival after 1, 5, 10 years of observation was significantly better in the treated cohort (84.62%, 46.80%, 28.30%) than untreated cohort (76.47%, 38.51%, 23.78%) (p = 0.021). Meanwhile, the 1-, 5-, 10-year overall survival in the treated cohort (96.96%, 80.29%, 57.30%) was also better than untreated cohort (92.28%, 62.47%, 45.50%) (p < 0.001). On the multivariable Cox regression analysis, anti-platelet therapy (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.63–0.85; p < 0.001), statin use (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49–0.90; p = 0.008) and non-aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.62–0.83; p < 0.001) were independently related to lower risks of HCC recurrence or death. The multivariable stratified analyses showed significantly better survivals in most subgroups of patients. Conclusion: Use of aspirin and clopidogrel was associated with a better recurrence-free survival and overall survival among patients with HBV-related HCC after liver resection.

Drinking patterns were assessed for each of the defined intervals

Drinking patterns were assessed for each of the defined intervals. For intervals during which respondents drank weekly or more often, patterns were assessed by asking how often respondents drank on Fridays during a typical month during the interval and how many drinks they usually had when they drank on a Friday during that interval. These quantity-frequency questions were repeated for Saturdays, Sundays, weekdays, and days when patients PLX4032 molecular weight drank more than usual. For intervals during which respondents drank less often than weekly, they were simply

asked about usual drinking quantity and frequency. Also assessed for each interval were the proportion of drinks represented by beverage types consumed during the period, liquor, beer (as lite/regular/malt liquor, etc.), and wines (fortified versus table wines). The CLDH was expanded for this study to assess drinking patterns during four critical periods related to HCV diagnosis and treatment: (1) before HCV diagnosis; (2) from diagnosis to HCV treatment; (3) during HCV treatment; and (4) from end of treatment to 6-month

follow-up SVR test. Data from the CLDH were used to generate estimates of total volumes of ethanol consumed (in kg) for three periods: (1) before HCV diagnosis; (2) from diagnosis to treatment; and (3) the sum of 1 and 2, which yielded ethanol consumed before HCV treatment. Total volumes of ethanol were divided by 14 g to calculate total numbers selleck of standard drinks, which were divided by number of drinking days to estimate drinking intensity (i.e., drinks per drinking

day) for these three periods. Total drinks were also divided by week and used together with drinks per drinking day to classify patients as heavy or less than heavy drinkers according to National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) criteria, where heavy drinking is the consumption of more than three drinks on any day or more than seven per week for women and more than four drinks on any day or more than 14 per week for men.11 Duration of abstention before HCV treatment was calculated by subtracting age at last drink before treatment from age at treatment initiation. Drinking during HCV treatment and during the 6 months after treatment is characterized as present or absent. find more Information on CD diagnosis was extracted from an electronic database for Outpatient Services Clinical Records dating back to 2000. Primary care physicians and specialists complete an outpatient services clinical record on which they check off patients’ current and ongoing medical problems, including alcohol and drug abuse, every time they see a patient. Date and type of visit to the health care plan’s Chemical Dependency Recovery Program have been recorded electronically since 2000. Patients having a record of at least one group visit were considered to have a recent history of CD treatment.

Consistent with the current report, neither liver nor adipose tis

Consistent with the current report, neither liver nor adipose tissue insulin resistance was different when Hispanics were compared with Caucasians, although muscle insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was somewhat lower in Hispanics. Both groups had well matched aminotransferase AZD5363 cell line levels and the same proportion of patients with increased liver aminotransferase levels. As in previous reports,3,

5, 7, 13 liver aminotransferase levels were not sensitive enough to assist in the detection of NAFLD, as the majority of patients with NASH had normal liver enzymes. Moreover, we found no correlation between plasma AST/ALT and insulin resistance at any level (i.e., hepatic, adipose tissue, or muscle). In addition, the correlation of AST/ALT with liver fat content by MRS and the overall NAS was weak and not significant, questioning the clinical value as a test for the screening of follow-up of NASH patients. This study does have

some limitations. First, African Americans were not included. This is because the ethnic mix of the San Antonio area is 61% Hispanic, 30% Caucasian and only 9% African American and other ethnicities. Therefore, we were unable to study enough African American patients to make a conclusive assessment relative to Hispanics and Caucasians. It must also be kept in mind that the Hispanic group was largely composed of patients of Mexican American ancestry, hence the findings may not apply to other Hispanic populations. click here Future work will clarify the impact of other ethnic backgrounds in NASH. Second, although there was no major insulin sensitivity

nor were there histological differences between patients of Hispanic and Caucasian ancestry, there was a trend among Hispanics to have worse hepatic insulin resistance and for diabetics to have more severe liver fibrosis on histology. This deserves further evaluation in relation to potential pharmacological treatment response, particularly insulin sensitizers such as pioglitazone. More pronounced insulin resistance or fibrosis in Hispanics may highlight a group in need of treatment at an earlier stage, either because they may be more likely to respond to thiazolidinedione therapy or be at greater risk of liver fibrosis. learn more Pioglitazone has proven to reverse hepatic insulin resistance in previous studies from our laboratory13 and others.36 Unfortunately, the relatively small number of subjects studied in our previous proof-of-concept study (n = 55 of which 50% were Hispanic)13 and the few Hispanics enrolled in the PIVENS study (37/247 [15%])36 do not allow firm conclusions at this time. Ongoing studies will likely shed light on this issue in the future.37, 38 Third, we only reported on overweight and obese subjects with NAFLD, though they represent the vast majority of patients affected.

Because KT5823 maintained mitochondrial content (Fig 4C) and PGC

Because KT5823 maintained mitochondrial content (Fig. 4C) and PGC-1α level, we presumed that resistin regulated mitochondria through inhibiting PGC-1α expression. The result of PGC-1α overexpression verified our hypothesis, because it blocked resistin action and maintained normal mitochondrial MAPK Inhibitor Library content (Fig. 6B). Moreover, RNAi of p65 was

found to stimulate PGC-1α expression, whereas p65 overexpression impaired PGC-1α expression (Fig. 6C). Through PLA, it was demonstrated that p65 interacted with PGC-1α. Resistin promoted the interaction of these proteins, but KT5823 inhibited their interaction (Fig. 6D). The interaction of p65 and PGC-1α is inversely related to mitochondrial content. Because PGC-1α is able to activate its own transcription,26, 27 interacting with p65 may impair self-activation and expression of PGC-1α. To prove this point, promoter activity of PGC-1α was measured. Both resistin and p65 suppressed the transcriptional activity of PGC-1α; however, cotransfection of p65 and PGC-1α restored the transcriptional activity of PGC-1α (Fig. 6E,F). Therefore, we concluded that resistin inactivated PGC-1α and inhibited mitochondrial biogenesis by promoting the interaction of p65 and PGC-1α. Our data suggest the following signaling scenario: First, resistin activates PKG by PKC; second, PKG activates p65 by phosphorylating its Thr464

and promotes the interaction of p65 and PGC-1α; and, finally, this interaction inactivates PGC-1α, diminishes mitochondrial content, and induces hepatic fat accumulation. Taken together, resistin diminishes mitochondria and induces hepatic steatosis through learn more the PKC/PKG/p65/PGC-1α Ibrutinib pathway. Both in animal models and humans, accumulated evidence supports the notion that mitochondrial content is down-regulated in obesity-associated diseases.6, 7, 11, 28, 29 However, it remains unclear whether the change in mitochondria content or obesity is the initial event in these processes. In this study, we found that resistin down-regulated mitochondrial content and impaired mitochondrial function.

After 24 hours of treatment, resistin slightly increased fat accumulation (Fig. 3C) and did not affect phosphorylation of Akt (Fig. 3F), but diminished mitochondrial content markedly (Fig. 1A). Hence, mitochondria diminution occurs before the change in fat accumulation and development of IR, implying that the change in the mitochondria occurs before NAFLD and diabetes. Moreover, when mitochondrial content was maintained by KT5823 (Fig. 4C), resistin did not stimulate hepatic TAG accumulation (Fig. 4F). Therefore, mitochondrial diminution may be an inducing factor for NAFLD. Some other groups also discovered that mitochondrial abnormalities are closely related to the pathogenesis of NAFLD and diabetes and proposed that NAFLD and diabetes are mitochondrial diseases8, 30, 31; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear.

9 This

is the first and largest population-based epidemio

9 This

is the first and largest population-based epidemiological study of AIH which has used the standardized scoring system to classify patients. Access to all Gastroenterologists and Hepatologists in the region allowed identification of cases under their care and a recording of demographic, clinical, laboratory and liver biopsy results. The population studied was predominantly of European descent, mainly from the UK and Ireland, with a smaller proportion being of Maori, Asian or Pacific Islander origin. The findings demonstrated a relatively high incidence (2.0/100 000) and prevalence (24.5/100 000) of autoimmune hepatitis in this region. The age-standardized GSI-IX mouse incidence and prevalence were 1.7/100 000 and 18.9/100 000, respectively. Consistent with earlier demographic studies, AIH was significantly more prevalent in women and in the Caucasian population. However the peak age at presentation was in the sixth decade with a median and

mean age at presentation of 54 and 50, respectively. This contrasts with older studies, in what was then called autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, which indicated that this syndrome was a disease of teenage and young female adults.5 Later studies suggested a bimodal distribution of the age at presentation with peaks in the peripubertal and 40–50 age brackets.10 More recent studies, from the UK, Europe, Asia and Australia1,7,11 have revealed a unimodal age at presentation; with a peak in the sixth decade of life and this is certainly consistent this website with the results reported by Ngu et al.9 check details Multiple factors could have contributed to this

apparent change in the age of patients presenting with AIH. The introduction of a more robust scoring system to identify patients with AIH may have detected disease in older patient groups that had not been captured in earlier epidemiological studies because of mild disease or atypical clinical features and presentation. Examples include patients with variant, overlap or mixed forms of AIH, or those classified by the IAHG scoring system as probable AIH. Such patients were included in the study reported by Ngu et al. as well as other more recent epidemiological studies. Alternatively, the change could reflect an increasing incidence of AIH among the older population, and/or a decreasing incidence among the young. The pathogenesis of AIH remains unknown. However, the most popular concept is that an environmental trigger initiates an immunologically mediated inflammatory reaction directed against liver antigens in a genetically predisposed host. In turn, this results in liver cell necrosis and hepatic fibrosis and can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure.1 A genetic susceptibility to AIH has been well established over many years, largely based on studies linking HLA genes to a predisposition to AIH Type 1.12 AIH is associated with the HLA–DR3 serotype, particularly among young female Caucasians with the early onset severe form of AIH.

Anseriformes, the fastest-flying birds in our sample, exhibit onl

Anseriformes, the fastest-flying birds in our sample, exhibit only moderate

eye sizes, while the Accipitridae, grouped within the Falconiformes, are the largest-eyed birds measured but have only moderate flight speeds. We, therefore, conclude that Leuckart’s Law as a simple expression of flight speed is not useful for explaining bird eye sizes. “
“In many polygynous mammals, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is thought to have evolved through sexual selection, because larger males prevail in male–male combat and secure access to estrous females. SSD is often correlated with higher age-specific mortality of males than selleck inhibitor of females, possibly because males have higher nutritional requirements and riskier growth and reproductive tactics. Y-27632 chemical structure In adult chamois Rupicapra rupicapra, sexual dimorphism in skeletal size was about 5%, but dimorphism in body

mass was highly seasonal. Males were about 40% heavier than females in autumn but only 4% heavier in spring. For a given skeletal size, males were heavier than females only in autumn. Chamois sexual dimorphism appears mainly due to greater summer accumulation of fat and muscle mass by males than by females. Male mass declines rapidly during the rut. Limited dimorphism in skeletal size combined with substantial but seasonal dimorphism in mass has not been reported in other sexually dimorphic ungulates. Seasonal changes in mass allow males to achieve large size for the rut by accumulating body resources during summer. The use of these resources over the rut may reduce mortality associated with sustaining

a large size over the winter. “
“Optimal escape theory predicts that animals should moderate their flight responses according to the level of risk represented by a potential predator. This theory should apply even when organisms are habituated see more to disturbance, and how animals respond to human presence is likely to determine their success exploiting urban habitats. Therefore, urban animals should be sensitive to cues that inform them about levels of risk, allowing them to reduce costs by not overreacting to innocuous stimuli, while ensuring that they are nevertheless reactive to genuinely threatening stimuli. We tested this at a highly urbanized site in New York City, where eastern grey squirrels appear to pay little attention to humans. Squirrels were approached tangentially on a trajectory that took the observer within ∼2 m of them and we measured alert distance, flight initiation distance (FID), and distance fled for each focal individual. Squirrels showed little sign of being alerted to the pedestrian if he remained on the footpath and did not look at them (only 5% of individuals moved away), but 90% of squirrels moved away, with longer FID and flight distance, when approached by a pedestrian that moved off the footpaths and looked at them. Squirrels therefore modulate their reactions when pedestrians behave in a predictable manner (i.e.

Protein concentrations were continuously monitored by optical den

Protein concentrations were continuously monitored by optical density (280nm). DNA, gly-cosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen contents were assessed and a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed. Results: After 24h the liver had a white and clear appearance and protein levels didn’t rise anymore. DNA was significantly decreased in the decellularized tissue (1.9% only SDS, 0.5% SDS and DNase) while GAGs could be preserved.

Collagen levels decreased to 51% in SDS + DNase flushed liver and to 32.9% in SDS flushed livers respectively. H&E staining showed an intact extra cellular matrix with no nuclear residuals (Figure). Conclusion: This study shows

that porcine Selumetinib datasheet livers can be successfully decellularized with low volumes of a 1% SDS solution and DNase in a standardized process in only 24 hours, in order to obtain an organ scaffold which can be used for tissue engineering and later on for transplantation. The loss of collagen might be critical for recellularization attempts but needs to be tested in further settings. Portal trias of a decellularized liver, H&E staining Disclosures: The following people Ku0059436 have nothing to disclose: Nicola Buehler, Martin Schenk Aim: Efforts to identify cell sources and approaches for cell therapy of liver diseases are ongoing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and the clinical outcomes of the first procedure of transplantation of human fetal biliary tree stem cells in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis.

Methods: The cells were immune-sorted for EpCAM (Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule) from human fetal biliary tree (including the gallbladder) by protocols in accordance click here with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Cell products were evaluated by standard sterility tests for gram+, gram-, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, mycetes and with endotoxins tests, and characterized immediately by Flow Cytometry (FC) for EpCAM and Leucine-Rich Repeat-Containing G Protein-Coupled Receptor 5 (LGR5) before transplantation. Two patients with advanced cirrhosis (Child-Pugh C) have been submitted to the procedure of via hepatic artery cell transplantation and observed trough a 12 months follow-up. Patients were not candidates for liver transplantation because of their age being greater than 70 years. Informed consent was obtained from the patients. Results: In fetal tissues, most EpCAM-positive cells co-expressed LGR5 and were located in the ductal plate, in the surface epithelium and bud of peribiliary glands of larger intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, and in gallbladder epithelium.