No growth was detected in medium containing 25% NaCl. Although the number of CFUs
decreased gradually in both N315 and its cls mutants, the decrease was much faster for the cls1/cls2 double mutant after 46 h. Based on these findings, we conclude that CL is critical for AZD6738 staphylococcal fitness under conditions of high salinity. Figure 6 Stationary-phase survival under high salinity. Cells were grown in LB containing either 15% (A, B) or 25% (C, D) NaCl. A, C : ODs were measured at least twice, and the means are shown. B, D : The number of CFUs was determined at least three times. The means and standard deviations are shown. E : Thin-layer chromatography of phospholipids. MCC950 chemical structure Note that CL accumulated in the cls2 mutant. The relative signal
intensities are shown on the right. No difference in susceptibility to antibiotics affecting cell walls (vancomycin, teicoplanin, cefarotin, cefmetazole, and cefazoline), quinolones (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid), arbekacin, or the antimicrobial peptides ASABF-α  and nisin was observed between the N315 and its cls mutants (data not shown). The MIC of nisin for both S. aureus N315 and its cls mutants was 80 μg ml-1. Effect of cls mutations on L-form generation Staphylococcus aureus cannot form normal colonies in the presence of penicillin. After a prolonged incubation, colonies with a ‘fried egg shape’ emerge . This adapted cell form is termed the L-form . Staphylococcus Anlotinib concentration aureus has especially high turgor pressure, and the L-form is induced under conditions of 5% NaCl and 5% sucrose. The L-form cell is able to grow without a cell wall, is Gram-negative, and lyses readily under hypotonic conditions (e.g., water). Thus, the L-form cell must have mechanisms allowing it to survive in such environments without the physical support of a cell wall. As one L-form strain has been shown to
accumulate large amounts of CL , we investigated the possibility that CL is important in the generation of the L-form variant by constructing cls mutants in the MT01 strain, which is capable of generating the L-form. The lack of cls genes did not abolish L-form generation, although the CYTH4 efficiency of L-form generation was reduced in the cls2 single and cls1/cls2 double mutants, but not in the cls1 single mutant (Figure 7). Figure 7 L-form generation in MT01 and its cls mutants. MT01: open squares; cls1 mutant: open triangles; cls2 mutant: filled squares; cls1/cls2 double mutant: filled triangles. L-forms are ‘fried-egg-shaped’ colonies that appear after prolonged incubation with cell-wall perturbing antimicrobials. The L-form has no cell wall, which we confirmed by disruption at low osmotic pressure. The means of at least two independent determinations are shown. Function of cls1 in stress responses Figure 8 summarizes the CL accumulation in each strain grown under 0.1 and 15% NaCl concentrations.