“Background: The possible association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been highlighted recently. However, the exact effects of MS on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of MS states, different componets of MS, as well as the number of MS componets on QUS.
Methods: A total of 7489 Chinese adults aged 40 years or older in Nanjing were enrolled Selleck Compound C in this cross-sectional study. MS was defined according to recommendations generated by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 2005. QUS was measured for each participant.
Results: The prevalence of MS was 34.6% in men
and 42.8% in women (over 40 years old). In postmenopausal women with MS, 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D], age adjusted quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) were all lower than those without (p < 0.001, p = 0.023, p = 0.021, respectively), the difference of QUI and BUA disappeared after adjustment for body mass index GDC-0973 chemical structure (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In stepwise analysis, BMI, WC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were related to QUS (p < 0.05). The number of MS components had no influence on QUS. Fragile fracture incidence was higher in women with MS (6.8% VS. 5.3%, P = 0.034).
Chinese postmenopausal women with MS have worse BMD measured by QUS and more chances to develop osteoporotic fractures than the controls, which partially due to central obesity as well as vitamin D deficiency. People having
less central obesity, higher FPG or HDL-C are less likely to have bone mineral loss.”
“Few studies have explored the topographic anatomy of the esophagus, posterior wall of the left atrium (LA), or fat pads using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to prevent the risk of esophageal injury during atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. MDCT was performed in 110 consecutive patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF before the ablation procedure to understand the anatomic relationship of the esophagus. Two major types of esophagus routes were demonstrated. Leftward (type A) and rightward (type B) routes were found in 90 and 10% of the patients, respectively. A type A route had a larger mean size of the LA than type MK-0518 B. The fat pad was identifiable at the level of the inferior pulmonary vein in 91% of the patients without any predominance of either type. The thickness of the fat pad was thinner in the patients with a dilated LA (>42 mm) than in those with a normal LA size (<= 42 mm) (p = 0.01). The results demonstrated that the majority of cases had a leftward route of the esophagus. There was a close association between the LA dilatation and fat pad thinning. With a dilated LA, the esophagus may become easily susceptible to direct thermal injury during AF ablation.