Copyright (c) 2012 Society of Chemical

Copyright (c) 2012 Society of Chemical GSK2126458 Industry”

This study was conducted to evaluate a computer program named Help with Adjustment to Alopecia by Image Recovery (HAAIR) that was developed to provide educational support and reduce distress in women with hair loss following chemotherapy.

Methods: Forty-five women who had been diagnosed with cancer and anticipated alopecia following treatment were randomly assigned to either the Imagining group (IG) or Standardized Care group (SCG). Patients in the IG used a computer-imaging program that created the patient’s image on a screen to simulate baldness and use of wigs whereas patients in the SCG were directed to a resource room at the Cancer Center established for women with chemotherapy-related alopecia. Assessment data using the Brief Symptom Inventory, Importance of Hair Questionnaire, and the Brief Cope were completed at baseline (T1), before chemotherapy and hair loss, following hair loss (T2), and 3 months follow-up (T3).

Results: All women were able to successfully use the touch screen computerized-imaging

program and reported that using the computer was a positive, helpful experience, thus establishing acceptability and usability. Women in both the IG: and the SCG group showed significantly lower hair loss distress scores at T2 after hair loss than at T1 with T3 distress scores increasing Selleck Autophagy inhibitor in the SCG and decreasing in the IG. Those with avoidance coping reported more distress.

Conclusion: This evaluation demonstrates that the HAAIR program is a patient-endorsed educational and supportive complement to care for women facing chemotherapy-related alopecia. Copyright (C) 2009 Selleckchem Adriamycin John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“BACKGROUND: Cloud point extraction (CPE) is an attractive alternative to solvent extraction. However, comparisons between both techniques are lacking. In this paper, the extraction of uranium(VI) using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as chelating agent

was studied by CPE using Triton X-114 as non-ionic surfactant and by solvent extraction using CHCl3 as diluent. RESULTS: Using CPE, a quantitative extraction was observed for pH higher than 4.5 with a HQ/U ratio of 10. Using solvent extraction an increase in the HQ/U ratio up to 50 is necessary to obtain a near quantitative extraction. Both extraction systems were then compared with respect to the nature of extracted species, and the extraction constants determined using log-log analysis of the extraction data. In the solvent extraction system, the extracted species were identified as UO2Q2 and the corresponding extraction constant was found to be log kex = – 3.6 +/- 0.2 on the molar scale. Considering that UO2Q2 is also the extracted species in CPE, a slightly higher extraction constant, i.e. log kex = – 2.5 +/- 0.3, was found.

A 30-year-old G(2) P(1+0+0+1) was referred at 30 weeks of pregnan

A 30-year-old G(2) P(1+0+0+1) was referred at 30 weeks of pregnancy with an ultrasound diagnosis of a large multicystic ovarian cyst with no solid areas, ascites or evidence of metastasis. Antenatal corticosteroid was administered and she was advised to follow-up with reports of tumor markers. She presented a week later with acute pain abdomen and breathlessness. Clinical

examination revealed a relaxed uterus and ultrasound was suggestive of rupture of the ovarian cyst. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a ruptured left mucinous ovarian cyst with no evidence of solid areas or metastasis. Left ovariotomy with infracolic omentectomy and concurrent cesarean section was done. A healthy male baby of weight 1.880 kg was delivered. AZD1208 Histopathology revealed stage-1c mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma of left ovary. This was followed-up, with a complete surgery done after a month. She is now receiving postoperative chemotherapy.

This is the first reported case of a ruptured malignant ovarian tumor in pregnancy. Torsion or rupture of ovarian masses is an important differential diagnosis of abdominal or pelvic pain during pregnancy.”
“Background: Malaria is the leading cause of

morbidity and mortality in post-conflict Burundi. To counter the increasing challenge of anti-malarial drug resistance and improve highly effective treatment Burundi adopted artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and oral quinine as second-line treatment in its national treatment policy in 2003. Uptake of this policy in the public, private Y-27632 nmr and non-governmental (NGO) retail selleck inhibitor market sectors of Burundi is relatively unknown. This study was conducted

to evaluate access to national policy recommended anti-malarials.

Methods: Adapting a standardized methodology developed by Health Action International/World Health Organization (HAI/WHO), a cross-sectional survey of 70 (24 public, 36 private, and 10 NGO) medicine outlets was conducted in three regions of Burundi, representing different levels of transmission of malaria. The availability on day of the survey, the median prices, and affordability (in terms of number of days’ wages to purchase treatment) of AS-AQ, quinine and other anti-malarials were calculated.

Results: Anti-malarials were stocked in all outlets surveyed. AS-AQ was available in 87.5%, 33.3%, and 90% of public, private, and NGO retail outlets, respectively. Quinine was the most common anti-malarial found in all outlet types. Non-policy recommended anti-malarials were mainly found in the private outlets (38.9%) compared to public (4.2%) and NGO (0%) outlets. The median price of a course of AS-AQ was US$0.16 (200 Burundi Francs, FBu) for the public and NGO markets, and 3.5-fold higher in the private sector (US$0.56 or 700 FBu). Quinine tablets were similarly priced in the public (US$1.

However, adequate arthrodesis was eventually obtained even in thi

However, adequate arthrodesis was eventually obtained even in this patient.

Conclusions ASAA with spine reconstruction using synthetic materials during the acute infection phase was safe and effective. The infections were rapidly defeated, the patients were allowed to stand up early after the procedure and the length of hospital stay was significantly reduced.”
“A study was conducted in Sao Paulo, Brazil, this website to compare azithromycin with thiamphenicol for the single-dose treatment of chancroid. In all, 54 men with chancroid were tested. The etiology was determined by clinical characterization and direct bacterioscopy with Gram staining. None of the patients had positive serology

or dark-field examination indicating active infection with Treponema pallidum. Genital infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae

and herpes simplex virus were excluded by polymerase chain reaction testing. For 54 patients with chancroid, cure rates with single-dose treatment were 73% with azithromycin and 89% with thiamphenicol. HIV seropositivity was found to be associated with treatment failure (p=0.001). The treatment failed in all HIV positive patients treated with azithromycin (p=0.002) and this drug should be avoided in these co-infected patients. In the view of the authors, thiamphenicol is the most indicated single-dose regimen for chancroid treatment.”
“Purpose Airway management of trauma patients during emergency surgeries can be very difficult and presents a challenge for anesthesiologists. Difficult airways are associated with emergency IWR-1-endo surgical airways (ESA), but little is known about ESA in the

operating room. We conducted this study to clarify the present use of ESA for trauma patients in emergency surgery settings.

Methods We performed a retrospective review of all trauma patients requiring emergency Cl-amidine cell line surgery under general anesthesia at our hospital from January 2002 to December 2012, focusing on ESA.

Results During the study period, 15,654 trauma patients were treated at our hospital, of whom 554 (3.5 %) required emergency surgery. Four of these patients (0.72 %) received ESA as definitive airway management. Two patients with severe facial injury and distorted upper airways and 1 patient with penetrating neck trauma received open standard tracheostomy (OST). These three patients received OST as the initial approach to intubation. A fourth OST was performed after several unsuccessful attempts at endotracheal intubation. No cases were classified as “”cannot ventilate, cannot intubate”" (CVCI), and there were no complications associated with ESA. All cases had good outcomes. Statistical analysis revealed that patients with severe facial trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale >= 3) received ESA at a significantly higher rate than others (p = 0.015, odds ratio 14.1).

Conclusion One of the most important functions of anesthesiologists is risk management.


clinical data are required to fully explore it


clinical data are required to fully explore its ML323 molecular weight use.”
“Aim: The aim of this preliminary study was to detect cytological changes in the oral mucosa after using a mouth wash with alcohol.

Material and Methods: A prospective double-blind, controlled study was performed, for 6 months. Group 1 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with 26.9% of alcohol [Listerine (R)] and Group 2 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with the same ingredients but with no alcohol. We obtained three cytological samples from the oral mucosa. The presence of cytological atypia, binucleation and karyorrhesis, and type of cells were studied. We also used a fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) in 15 samples in each group, for the micronucleus.

Results: We found no clinical mucosal alteration after using the mouth wash at the end of the study in either group. We observed no cytological differences between the groups at the end of the study (p>0.05). Regarding the study of the micronucleus by FISH, we observed no significant selleck chemical difference between the groups (p>0.05).


Our results showed no cytological alteration in patients using a mouth rinse with alcohol, but these findings should be considered preliminary results, to be confirmed in a greater sample of patients.”
“Psoriasis is a chronic systemic disease with important skin INCB28060 nmr manifestations, affecting 2 % of the population. It is more frequent and severe in obese patients, and both have been associated

with a higher cardiovascular risk. Recent studies suggest that weight loss may improve psoriasis and metabolic comorbidities in obese patients. We reviewed our prospective electronic database for all patients with psoriasis who underwent bariatric surgery between 2008 and 2011. We assessed surgical complications, weight progression, and psoriasis-related outcomes. The Dermatology Life Quality Index was used retrospectively to assess quality of life (QoL) before and after the operation. Ten patients were included; body mass index was 38.8 +/- 5.2 kg/m(2). Pre-surgical treatment for psoriasis was topical (50 %) and systemic (40 %). Eight patients underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and two underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. At follow-up, the mean percent excess weight loss 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery was 45 %, 80 %, and 88 %, respectively. Comorbidity resolution was 75 % for diabetes mellitus, 100 % for insulin resistance, and 57 % for hypertension. Related to psoriasis, 70 % of the patients stayed in remission 6 months after surgery and three of the four patients who were previously medicated with systemic drugs discontinued medication. The impact of psoriasis on QoL improved from 14.9 +/- 6.8 before surgery to 5 +/- 6.3 after surgery ( = 0.005).

These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch

These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest

that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, BAY 57-1293 which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.”
“The conditions for the sulfhydryl oxidase (SOX) production and activity from an Egyptian isolate of Aspergillus niger were optimized. Purification and determination of the kinetic properties (K (m) and V (max)) of the purified enzyme have been done. The possibility for the SOX induction using L-Cys (as a natural substrate) was studied to determine whether SOX could be produced as an inducible enzyme in addition to being a constitutive one (i.e. whether induction leads to increase SOX production and activity or not). The optimum temperature and pH for its activity were found to be CA3 60A

degrees C and 5.5, respectively. The activity of the induced intracellular SOX, was measured according to Ellman’s method using the standard GSH oxidation where it reached 94% while that of non-induced one reached only 27.6%. This wide difference in activity between the induced and non-induced SOX indicates the successful L-Cys-induction of the SOX production (i.e. SOX from A. niger AUMC 4947 is an inducible enzyme). Molecular characterization of the pure SOX revealed that it is constituted of two 50-55 KDa subunits. K (m) and V (max) were found to be 6.0 mM and 100 mu M/min/mg respectively.”
“BACKGROUND The hallmark of Mohs micrographic surgery is using tangential tissue sections that theoretically allow 100% of the tissue margin to be examined, but when taking additional layers for second and subsequent Mohs stages, no detailed methods have been described to ensure that 100% of the tissue margins are analyzed.


A rectangular or a crescent-shaped layer is often used to take second and subsequent stages. Here we compare the two techniques for their theoretic advantages and disadvantages.

SUMMARY The advantage of the rectangular shape has been ease of processing, as well as built in vertical “”nicks” that GS-9973 automatically mark the border of the tissue removed, but the rectangular layer may not provide 100% evaluation of the tumor margin because the vertical edges of the rectangular layer are not always completely analyzed, and thus tumor cells cannot be visualized in the vertical margins of these layers. This might result in a false-negative margin reading, which can be avoided by using the crescent layer.

CONCLUSION We propose taking second and subsequent Mohs layers with only a crescent shape, which allows true 100% tissue margin assessment..”
“Background:Systematic Reviews (SRs) of experimental animal studies are not yet common practice, but awareness of the merits of conducting such SRs is steadily increasing.

S , Young, D , Wiersenna, B , Mitchell, S , Rhodes, A G , 2007 T

S., Young, D., Wiersenna, B., Mitchell, S., Rhodes, A.G., 2007. The National CriminaI Justice Treatment Practices Survey: Multi-level Survey methods and procedures. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 32, 225-238], and includes both adult criminal and juvenile justice samples. Results indicated that

several state organizational characteristics were either associated with more EBP use or interacted with local organizational characteristics in associations with EBP use, including: (I) systems integration at the state level was associated with greater EBP use; (2) state staffing adequacy and stability accentuated the association between local training and resources for new programs selleck chemical and EBP use (i.e., in states with better staffing, the relationship between training/resources and EBP use in local facilities was stronger): and (3) state executives’ attitudes regarding the missions and goals of corrections tended to diminish the extent to which corresponding local adminstrator attitudes were associated with EBP use. The Study has implications for future research focused on EBP diffusion and implementation in correctional environments,

particularly attempts to influence EBP use by working through state agencies. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Chitosan beads (CB) possesses low defluoridation capacity (DC) have been Suitably modified by carboxylation followed LY2090314 by chelation with Ce(III) to enhance its DC. The carboxylated chitosan beads find more (CCB), which has a desirable DC of 1385 mgF(-)/kg, has been further chemically modified by incorporating Ce 31 ion into CCB (Ce-CCB) and its DC was found to be 4798 mgF-/kg, whereas raw chitosan beads (CB) possesses 52 mgF-/kg only. The maximum DC of Ce-CCB was observed at pH 7 and showed selectivity toward fluoride in presence of other coanions. The sorbent was characterized using FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The sorption data was fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and kinetic models.

The calculated thermodynamic parameters, viz., Delta G degrees, Delta H degrees and Delta S degrees indicate the nature of fluoride sorption. A field trial was carried out with fluoride water collected from a nearby fluoride-endemic village to test the suitability of Ce-CCB at field conditions. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 1114-1121, 2009″
“Despite strong interest in improving collaborations between correctional and substance abuse treatment organizations, there is a lack of empirical data describing the existing practices. The Current Study used a national Survey of correctional administrators to examine organizational factors related to cross-agency collaboration and integration activities between corrections and Substance abuse treatment organization.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3642083]“

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3642083]“
“Kidney paired donation (KPD) is a safe and effective means of transplantation for transplant candidates with willing but incompatible donors. We report our single-center experience with KPD through participation in the National Kidney

Registry. Patient demographics, transplant rates, and clinical outcomes including delayed graft function (DGF), rejection, and survival were analyzed. We also review strategies employed by our center Selleck SRT2104 to maximize living donor transplantation through KPD. We entered 44 incompatible donor/recipient pairs into KPD from 9/2007 to 1/2011, enabling 50 transplants. Incompatibility was attributable to blood type (54.4%) and donor-specific sensitization (43.2%). Thirty-six candidates (81.8%) were transplanted after 157 d (median), enabling pre-emptive transplantation in eight patients. Fourteen candidates on the deceased donor waiting list also received transplants. More than 50% of kidneys were received from other transplant centers. DGF occurred in 6%; one-yr rejection rate was 9.1%. One-yr patient and graft survival was 98.0% and 94.8%. KPD involving participation of multiple transplant centers can provide opportunities for transplantation, with potential to expand the donor pool, minimize waiting

times, and enable pre-emptive transplantation. Our experience demonstrates promising short-term outcomes; however, longer follow-up is needed buy PXD101 to assess Anti-infection inhibitor the impact of KPD on the shortage of organs available for transplantation.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of brimonidine tartrate 0.10% ophthalmic solution on pupil diameter under light and dark luminance conditions.

SETTING: Ophthalmology Department, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

DESIGN: Case series.

METHODS: The pupil diameter was measured with a Colvard pupillometer in eyes of healthy volunteers under light (5.0 candelas [cd]/m(2)) and dark (0.0 cd/m(2)) luminance conditions before brimonidine 0.10% instillation and after 30 minutes, 3 hours, and 6 hours.

RESULTS: The mean age of the 26 volunteers (52 eyes) was 34.73

years (range 19 to 60 years). Under light conditions, the mean pupil diameter was 4.98 mm +/- 0.83 (SD) before instillation of brimonidine 0.10% and 4.64 +/- 0.82 mm after instillation. The difference was not statistically significant, with 13.4% of eyes having a clinically significant reduction (>1.0 mm) in pupil diameter after 6 hours. Under dark conditions, the mean pupil diameter was 6.76 +/- 1.08 mm before instillation of brimonidine 0.10% and 5.30 +/- 0.85 mm after instillation; the difference was statistically significant (P < .001). There was a clinically significant reduction in pupil diameter after 6 hours in 90.4% of eyes. The antimydriatic effect under dark luminance conditions was more pronounced in eyes with light irides.

We assessed the involvement of the periodontal pathogen Aggregati

We assessed the involvement of the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans in the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient spontaneously hyperlipidemic (Apoeshl) mice. The mice were treated

intravenously with A. actinomycetemcomitans HK1651, S. mutans GS-5, or phosphate-buffered saline three times a week for 3 weeks and killed at 15 weeks of age. The areas P5091 chemical structure of the aortic sinus that were covered with atherosclerotic plaque were significantly larger in Apoeshl mice challenged with A. actinomycetemcomitans compared with S. mutans- or vehicle-challenged mice. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans challenge increased serum high-sensitive selleck chemicals C-reactive protein and lipopolysaccharide levels. Bacterial DNA was detected in the blood, heart, and spleen, but not in the liver. Furthermore, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and MCP-1 levels and Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, ICAM-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, LOX-1, HSP60, CCL19, CCL21, CCR7, and MCP-1 expressions in the aorta were significantly increased in mice challenged with A. actinomycetemcomitans. These results suggest that systemic infection with A. actinomycetemcomitans

accelerates atherosclerosis in Apoeshl mice by exposing the whole microorganisms or their products, followed by initiating inflammation. Increases in proatherogenic factors may explain the aggravation of atherosclerosis by A. actinomycetemcomitans infection.”
“Background: Heterotopic ossification

is the ectopic formation of mature lamellar bone in nonosseous tissue. The prevalence of heterotopic ossification following combat injuries is much higher than civilian data would suggest. In certain cases, the aberrant bone formation can envelop major neurovascular structures in the lower extremity, leading to symptomatic neurovascular entrapment.

Methods: We describe five consecutive cases of heterotopic ossification leading to symptomatic neurovascular entrapment in the lower extremity as a result of blast trauma and present our method of patient MK-2206 assessment, preoperative planning, and surgical excision.

Results: Heterotopic bone was successfully excised without neurovascular injury in all patients. At a mean of twenty months (range, eight to forty-five months) postoperatively, all patients demonstrated continued improvement of their pre-excision function. All patients who had neuropathic pain had a decrease in the pain. Those with decreased joint motion regained motion once their wounds were stable. Sensory deficits resolved before motor deficits did. There was no recurrence of clinically relevant heterotopic ossification in this series.

Conclusions: Excision of heterotopic bone, particularly with concurrent neurovascular entrapment, can be associated with major short-term and long-term complications.

Methods: Between July 2007 and February 2009, an


Methods: Between July 2007 and February 2009, an

open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in patients aged three months and click here over with slide-confirmed P. vivax mono-infections was conducted. Consistent with current national guidelines, primaquine was not administered. Subjects were followed up daily during the acute phase of illness (days 0-3) and weekly until day 56. The primary endpoint was the overall cumulative parasitological failure rate at day 56 after the start of treatment, with the hypothesis being that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was non-inferior compared to chloroquine (Delta = 5% difference in proportion of failures).

Results: Of 2,182 individuals with positive blood films for P. vivax, 536 were enrolled in the trial. The day 28 cure rate was 100% in both treatment groups. Parasite clearance was more rapid with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine than chloroquine. At day 56, there were more recurrent infections in the chloroquine arm (8.9%, 95% CI 6.0-13.1%) than the dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine arm (2.8%, 95% CI 1.4-5.8%),

a difference in cumulative recurrence rate of 6.1% (2-sided 90% CI + 2.6 to + 9.7%). The log-rank test comparing the survival curves confirmed the superiority of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine over chloroquine (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that a lower initial haemoglobin concentration was also independently associated with recurrence. Both regimens were well tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported.

Conclusions: Chloroquine remains an efficacious treatment for the treatment of vivax malaria in Afghanistan. see more In a setting where radical therapy cannot be administered, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine provides additional benefit in terms of post-treatment prophylaxis, reducing the incidence of recurrence from 4-8 weeks after treatment.”
“The aqueous root extract of Cochlospermum tinctorium (CTR) was investigated for its phytochemical Salubrinal Apoptosis inhibitor composition; acute oral toxicity and hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver damage in rats. Phytochemical screening indicates the presence

of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, cyanogenic glycosides and volatile oils while steroids and anthraquinones were absent. Administration of 5000 mg/kg (body weight) of the extract orally did not produce any death in the rats within the observable period. The extract at 100 – 300 mg/kg (body weight) significantly and dose dependently reduced the levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes levels in the CCl(4) – treated rats. The values of serum albumin, serum total protein and reduced glutathione in the extract treated groups of rats remained comparatively higher than its values in the CCl(4) (-) treated group.

This review summarizes the mechanisms of action of vitamin D and

This review summarizes the mechanisms of action of vitamin D and the VDR in the context of the gastrointestinal tract and colorectal carcinogenesis.”
“Background: 17DMAG Two related family members, a female and a male balanced carrier of an intrachromosomal insertion on chromosome 7 were referred to our centre for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This presented a rare opportunity to investigate the behaviour of the insertion chromosome during meiosis in two related

carriers. The aim of this study was to carry out a detailed genetic analysis of the preimplantation embryos that were generated from the three treatment cycles for the male and two for the female carrier.

Patients underwent in vitro fertilization and on day 3, 22 embryos from the female carrier and 19 embryos from the male carrier were biopsied and cells analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Follow up analysis of 29 untransferred embryos was also performed OICR-9429 purchase for confirmation of the diagnosis and to obtain information on meiotic and mitotic outcome.

Results: In this study, the female carrier produced more than twice as many chromosomally

balanced embryos as the male (76.5% vs. 36%), and two pregnancies were achieved for her. Follow up analysis showed that the male carrier had produced more highly abnormal embryos than the female (25% and 15% respectively) and no pregnancies occurred for the male carrier and his partner.

Conclusion: This study compares how an intrachromosomal insertion has behaved in the meiotic and preimplantation stages of development in sibling male and female carriers. It confirms that PGD is an appropriate treatment Cediranib in such cases. Reasons for the differing

outcome for the two carriers are discussed.”
“IntroductionSolid organ transplant recipients have a higher frequency of tuberculosis (TB) than the general population, with mortality rates of approximately 30%. Although donor-derived TB is reported to account for <5% of TB in solid organ transplants, the source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is infrequently determined.

MethodsWe report 3 new cases of pulmonary TB in lung transplant recipients attributed to donor infection, and review the 12 previously reported cases to assess whether cases could have been prevented and whether any cases that might occur in the future could be detected and investigated more quickly. Specifically, we evaluate whether opportunities existed to determine TB risk on the basis of routine donor history, to expedite diagnosis through routine mycobacterial smears and cultures of respiratory specimens early post transplant, and to utilize molecular tools to investigate infection sources epidemiologically.

FindingsOn review, donor TB risk was present among 7 cases. Routine smears and cultures diagnosed 4 asymptomatic cases. Genotyping was used to support epidemiologic findings in 6 cases.