There are a number of emerging rapid non-destructive methods for

There are a number of emerging rapid non-destructive methods for chemical grouping of foods such as the direct injection mass spectrometric techniques (DIMS), atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) (Davies, Linforth, Wilkinson, ROCK inhibitor Smart, & Cook, 2011), proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) (Biasioli, Yeretzian, Gasperi, & Mark, 2011) and selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) (Langford et al., 2012) have gained the attention of the researchers working in the field

for classification and authenticity, due to their ability to perform real time non-invasive analysis with high sensitivity and limited sample pre-treatment. PTR in combination with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) have been extensively used for classification studies of a broad range of food products including PDO cheese, olive oil and dry cured hams, intact fruits and their derivatives (Aprea et al., 2006, Biasioli et al., 2003, Cappellin et al., 2012, Del Pulgar et al., 2011 and Galle et al., 2011). In these cases, classification typically uses the data matrix resulting

from the entire mass spectrum (spectral fingerprint) and statistical treatment to identify clusters, trends or correlations, appropriate data mining techniques may Selleckchem DZNeP include partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbours (KNN), soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA) (Fisk, Virdie, Kenny, & Ullrich, 2010) support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) (Cappellin et al., 2012). Whist direct injection mass spectrometric techniques are rapid and information rich, gas phase chemometric classification approaches should always take into consideration

the availability of volatile compounds in the gas-phase and the equilibrium concentration difference between the product and its gas phase. The chemical potential of a volatile component is dependent Baf-A1 firstly on the physicochemical properties of the analyte, the physical structure of the matrix (Yang et al., 2012 and Yu et al., 2012), the presence of multiple phases (Fernández-Vázquez et al., 2013 and Fisk et al., 2011) and chemical composition of the product being analysed (Fisk, Boyer, & Linforth, 2012). It is therefore important to consider that modifications to the product non-volatile composition may have a significant impact on the aroma profile and therefore where appropriate, standardisations should be applied.

Strawberry fruit (Fragaria

Strawberry fruit (Fragaria Pifithrin-�� concentration x ananassa Duch.), cv. Camarosa, were harvested from a commercial plantation located in Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil), at five developmental stages based on fruit colour and weight: 1 (green, 3.0 g ± 0.9), 2 (white, 8.6 g ± 0.5), 3 (50% red, 14.2 g ± 0.7), 4 (75% red, 16.6 g ± 1.0) and 5 (red, 16.2 g ± 1.2). From each developmental stage three experimental units of approximately

60 strawberries were collected. Half of an experimental unit was immediately utilised for firmness determination and the remaining was frozen and stored at −80 °C for further analysis. Firmness was measured using a texture analyser (Texture Analyzer, TA.XT plus, Stable Micro Systems Texture Technologies) fitted with a 2 mm (diameter) flat probe.

Each fruit was penetrated 50% at a speed of 1.0 mm s−1 and the maximum force developed during the test was recorded. Three measurements were taken per fruit at different points of the equatorial zone and 30 berries at each stage were assayed. Results were expressed in Newtons (N). Total anthocyanin content was determined according to the method described by Lees and Francis (1972). One gram of strawberry ground to mTOR inhibitor a powder in liquid nitrogen was suspended in 25 ml of acidic ethanol (0.01% HCl), for 1 h in the dark. Absorbance readings were performed in a spectrophotometer at 520 nm. Anthocyanin content was expressed Anacetrapib as mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per 100 g of fruit fresh weight (fw). Total phenolic compounds were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. One gram of ground flesh

was suspended in 60 ml of deionized water and 5 ml of Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. After eight minutes, the solution was neutralised with 20 ml of a saturated sodium carbonate solution and kept in the dark for 2 h. Absorbance was measured at 725 nm and results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fruit fw (mg GAE 100 g−1 fw). Ascorbic acid was measured using a reverse-phase HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), according to Vinci, Botre, Mele, and Ruggieri (1995). Total AA was extracted with metaphosphoric acid (1% w/v) and analysed in a Shimadzu HPLC system, using a Shim-Pak CLC-ODS column (3.9 cm × 150 mm × 4 μm), coupled to a UV SPD-10AV detector. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% acetic acid in water (A), and methanol (B). An elution gradient started at 100% A, then linearly reduced to 98% of A and 2% B after five minutes; then held for two minutes and returned to the initial conditions at ten minutes. Flow rate was 0.8 ml min−1 and the detector was set at 254 nm. Quantification was based on an external standard calibration curve using l-(+)-ascorbic acid (Sigma–Aldrich).

We would also like to thank Xiaoliu Zhou, Tao Jia, and Ryan Henni

We would also like to thank Xiaoliu Zhou, Tao Jia, and Ryan Hennings for measuring the urinary BPA concentrations. “
“Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have gained considerable attention as environmental Afatinib molecular weight pollutants due to their persistence, their bioaccumulative potential (Kelly et al.,

2009 and Martin et al., 2004b) and their toxic properties. They have been associated with liver toxicity and developmental toxicity in laboratory animals (Lau et al., 2007), and immunotoxicity in both laboratory and wild animals (DeWitt et al., 2012 and Kannan et al., 2006). PFAAs are released into the environment, both directly from manufacturing and indirectly through products such as surfactants and surface protectors (Paul et al., 2008 and Prevedouros et al., 2006). Due to their unique properties of being both water and oil repellent, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoralkyl substances are extensively used in a wide range of industrial and consumer applications, such as nonstick coatings on cookware, some waterproof clothes, and in fire-fighting

foams. Two fluorinated compound classes, the perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs) have been studied substantially in recent years. Members of both classes are globally distributed and have been detected in wildlife as well as in humans (Gamberg et al., 2005, Giesy and Kannan, 2001, Houde et al., 2011, Kannan et al., 2001 and Kärrman et al., 2007). In addition to direct emission, several precursor compounds have been identified as an indirect source of PFCAs and PFSAs in environmental matrices Pexidartinib mouse (Young and Mabury, 2010). So far, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been subjected

to most attention as they are among the most toxic PFAAs (Kudo and Kawashima, 2003 and Lau et al., 2004) and have been found at relatively high levels (Houde et al., 2006b). In 2009, PFOS was added to the Stockholm convention list of persistent organic pollutants (Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 2009) and the largest producer of PFOS-based products, the 3M company, phased out their production by 2002 (3M, 2000). The replacement compound for PFOS is perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (3M, 2002), Adenosine triphosphate which seems to be less potent in rat toxicity tests (Lieder et al., 2009) and has a shorter half-life in human and rat serum (Olsen et al., 2009) than PFOS. However, compared to PFOS and PFOA, the bioaccumulation and toxicity of PFBS have been less investigated, although the literature is increasing. The wild American mink has been acknowledged as a useful sentinel species for chemical pollution and related health effects (Basu et al., 2007 and Persson et al., 2012). The arguments are mainly that it is a semi-aquatic top predator with a widespread distribution and it can, especially where it is an invasive species, be captured in large numbers.

Furthermore, once management realizes that the ratio is 100:1 or

Furthermore, once management realizes that the ratio is 100:1 or even greater, then it is too late for reducing the ratio through thinnings. On the other hand, if thinning regimes are forecast by a simulator that consistently over-predicts height:diameter ratios, then management will be cautious regarding projections, only to find that the stands have remained in the zone of stability, which allows for future thinnings to maintain stand stability. Height:diameter ratios of individual trees predicted by the four growth simulators never Bortezomib molecular weight exceeded the maximum observed values in Arnoldstein, but they did exceed the observed maximum values in Litschau. We therefore compared the maximum values found in Litschau to

maximum values observed by the Austrian National Forest Inventory. Note that we used only trees that were actually measured for height from the Austrian National Forest Inventory for this comparison. Predicted values did not exceed the values of the National Forest Inventory selleck compound for any dbh class. We conclude that predictions for individual trees remain in a likely data range for very dense stands. Our investigations showed that the simulated values are sometimes higher than the reference equations of Stampfer (1995). However, the values simulated are not unreasonably high. The entire curves are

within the range of the open-grown tree values in the original dataset used by Stampfer (1995) and Lässig (1991). From our results

for open-grown trees, there seems to RG7420 cell line be an illogical curve form for the growth models, except for Moses, on some sites. Height:diameter ratios first increase and peak and only monotonically decrease after some time ( Fig. 6). The curve form does not correspond to the monotonically decreasing height:diameter ratios found in open-grown tree studies ( Thren, 1986, Lässig, 1991, Stampfer, 1995 and Hasenauer, 1997). A similar pattern was observed on permanent research plots for both dominant and mean trees planted at low densities ( Busse and Weissker, 1931 and Neumann, 1997), whereas monotonically decreasing patterns were found for young stands with high initial densities ( Busse and Weissker, 1931). Similarly, for our simulations we found that the curve form was sensitive to starting values. If starting height:diameter ratios were high, then the ratios monotonically decreased over time; if the starting values were low, then there was a peak. The incorrect patterns predicted for open-grown trees might therefore be an artefact, because growth models were fitted from stand data. We compared the simulated open-grown tree dimensions of the four forest growth models to values reported in the literature. There were few comparable studies, because most studies on open-grown trees do not include stand age (Stampfer, 1995 and Hasenauer, 1997) or values are available only for young trees (<30 years) (Hartig, 1868, Kramer et al.

g , WWF, 2012) The proposed operational benefit indicator is thu

g., WWF, 2012). The proposed operational benefit indicator is thus trends in plantation performance of selected species, which is associated with two verifiable indicators and three verifiers. The only verifier that would be simple to use “hectares planted by species/provenance either locally or as an exotic” provides only partial assessment. The two other verifiers are more complicated to measure. These are “seed source performance: growth and survival” which can be assessed experimentally, and Volasertib cost “realized genetic gain and profit” which can be assessed by employing a quantitative genetics approach in a suitable sample of genetic entries. Indicators of the more

subtle benefits related to ecosystem services and the management of natural ecosystems (e.g., natural forest management and restoration) still require development. There is a clear need to link genetic variability and ecosystem services, but we should also be aware of the dual nature of genetic diversity, as on the one hand a necessary precondition for future evolution of local populations, entire species and ecosystems, and on the other hand a service provider (e.g., for breeding programs). GSK1120212 mouse In both cases the integration of genetic diversity into climate change adaptation planning is important (Alfaro et al., 2014, this issue). Additional work in this area is required. Knowledge,

education and communication are closely linked. Scientific knowledge can be gathered from the literature, whereas only traditional knowledge can be more difficult to capture. The state of education may to some extent be available from national statistics and may be collected through national surveys. Assessment of trends will probably have to rely on special studies. Knowledge on intra-specific variation can be immediately connected to the two indicator areas discussed above, trends in species and population distribution patterns and condition and trends in plantation performance. Two combined response and benefit operational indicators are related to knowledge and capacity

building, with six verifiable indicators listed for the global, regional and national levels, while one trends in knowledge of genetic diversity of species is also proposed for assessment at the local level ( Table 5). In total, there are seven associated verifiers and all except one (“parameters of genetic differentiation among populations”, Table 5) can be evaluated based on background information such as National Forest Inventories (NFIs) and National Forest Programs (NFPs), or based on database searches. The estimation of verifier “parameters of genetic differentiation among populations” would require the use of molecular genetic markers and/or the evaluation of suitable field trials.

g , validate and cheerlead) However, at home, she would often re

g., validate and cheerlead). However, at home, she would often report feeling helpless to Ricky’s moods and opposition, expressing statements like, “He’s like a politician, finding any little loophole to a rule,” or “I don’t know what else to do. I’ve

tried so many things in the past that haven’t work; I’ve felt like giving up.” When the mother would become more directive at home, Ricky would become verbally aggressive. The therapist emphasized Epigenetics Compound Library price the “middle path” skills of validation and cheerleading by having her say, “Ricky, I know you’re feeling very sick right now and that sucks. I also know that you can get out of bed and make it to school even though it’s hard right now.” Using these techniques along with consistently acknowledging Ricky’s progress appeared most helpful in moving Ricky toward school.

Validate and cheerlead was also helpful for the father to learn, as was becoming more adept at delivering positive reinforcement. Video 1 demonstrates a WBC session teaching parents these skills. WBC sessions were scheduled throughout the course of treatment with Ricky and/or his mother. They received 36 sessions that focused on three priorities: to assess SR behavior, to conduct in vivo skills coaching, and to conduct in vivo skills coaching with Ricky’s mother to implement the contingency plan or practice skills. The sessions were scheduled more frequently in the beginning RG7204 order of treatment (daily) and titrated down towards the end. Phone coaching was made available to both Ricky and his mother as a way for them to reach out to the therapist when SR occurred outside of scheduled WBC sessions. The

WBC software and hardware appeared very acceptable and easy to implement for both the family and the therapist with minimal difficulties experienced throughout the course of treatment. WBC sessions also appeared to give critical support to the mother who was interested in, but insecure with, delivering DBT skills at home. By the end of treatment, Ricky stated that he appreciated learning his behavioral patterns. Although Ricky’s insight improved, his willingness to attend school when in pain only slightly improved. Ricky’s commitment to implementing the DBT skills and attending treatment waxed and waned during treatment. Ricky Morin Hydrate made progress in increasing mindfulness of his emotions and increased his school attendance (though tardiness continued to be an issue), but the degree to which he actually practiced his skills is unclear. At posttreatment Ricky only met criteria for School Refusal (CSR = 6) and at follow-up, he no longer met criteria for any diagnoses according to clinician-administered parent and youth interviews. Youth 2 Lance1 was a 14-year-old, Caucasian boy, enrolled in the 9th grade at a private school. His parents were separated and had joint custody.

A number of recent review articles have addressed the importance

A number of recent review articles have addressed the importance of sandfly-borne phleboviruses in Western Europe (Charrel et al., 2005, Cusi et al., 2010, Depaquit et al., 2010, Nicoletti et al., 1996 and Maroli et al., 2013). In the present paper, special attention has been given to data from Eastern Europe and from Middle-Eastern and North African (MENA) countries. The genus Phlebovirus, (family Bunyaviridae), contains nine viral species (Sandfly fever Naples, Salehabad, Rift valley fever, Uukuniemi, Bujaru, Candiru,

Chilibre, Frijoles, Punta Toro), and several tentative species, as defined in the 9th Report of the International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ( Plyusnin et al., 2011). In the Old World, Uukuniemi virus is transmitted by ticks, Rift valley fever virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, Sandfly fever Naples and Salehabad viruses are transmitted by sandflies. Sandfly-borne phleboviruses this website are transmitted by Lutzomyia flies in the New IDO inhibitor World and by Phlebotomus flies in the Old World. The dichotomy is absolute. Considering sandfly-borne phleboviruses of the Old World, the ICTV recognizes at present two viral species (Sandfly fever Naples, Salehabad) and two tentative

species (Sicilian, Corfu) ( Fig. 1). All members of the genus Phlebovirus have a trisegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. The L, M and S segments encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the viral envelope glycoproteins and in the case of the S segment, both the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) and a nonstructural protein (Ns) ( Liu et al., 2003, Suzich et al., 1990 and Xu et al., 2007). The single stranded RNA segments are known to have high (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate mutation rates due to the lack of proofreading activity of the viral polymerase which may result in genetic drift due to individual accumulated point mutations. RNA viruses are known to replicate as quasispecies populations, a situation favoring development of mutants with modified phenotypic characteristics, and possibly higher virulence and modified properties.

Single stranded RNA viruses are known to undergo major evolutionary events due to recombination; this has been demonstrated for many viruses in the Bunyaviridae family. The organization of the genome in the form of three segments renders possible genome reassortment (genetic shift), an important evolutionary event characterized by the exchange of genetic material between two distinct virus strains during co-infection of a single eukaryotic cell, resulting in the creation of a chimeric virus potentially exhibiting unique characteristics including virulence potentiation. Sandflies in the genera Phlebotomus, (Rondani and Berté, 1840); Sergentomyia, (França and Parrot, 1920); and Lutzomyia, (França, 1924) belong to the order Diptera, family Psychodidae, and subfamily Phlebotominae.

For each sample, the expression of each gene was normalized to ho

For each sample, the expression of each gene was normalized to housekeeping gene 36B4 (sense 5′-AAT CCT GAG CGA TGT GCA G-3′, antisense 3′-GTC GCC ATT GTC AAA CAC C-5′) expression using the 2−ΔΔCt method. The results were normalized by fold changes relative to the C–SAL group. BALF analysis was performed in the remaining 42 animals (n = 7/each). A polyethylene cannula was inserted into the trachea

and a total volume of 1.5 mL of buffered saline (PBS) containing 10 mM EDTA was instilled and aspirated three GSK2118436 times. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and KC (murine analog of IL-8) in BALF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in accordance with manufacturer instructions (Duo Set, R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). Data were tested for normal distribution (by

means of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov Selleckchem RG7420 test with Lilliefors’ correction) and homogeneity of variances (by Levene’s median test). Parametric data are expressed as mean (SEM), whereas non-parametric data are expressed as median (interquartile range). Differences among the study groups were assessed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni’s correction. All tests were performed in the GraphPad Prism v5.00 software environment (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA). The significance Oxymatrine level was set at P < 0.05. Static lung elastance (Est,L) was higher in the CLP–SAL group (58%) than in C–SAL animals (Fig. 1). In the CLP groups, both treatments (DEXA and OA) reduced Est,L (Fig. 1, P < 0.001). Neutrophil

infiltration, alveolar collapse and interstitial edema were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in CLP–SAL compared to C–SAL ( Table 1 and Fig. 2). In the CLP groups, DEXA and OA reduced alveolar collapse and the number of neutrophils in lung tissue as compared with CLP–SAL ( Table 1). CLP–OA animals had fewer macrophages in lung tissue than CLP–SAL (P < 0.01) and CLP–DEXA (P < 0.05) ( Table 1). Consequently, the total cell count was higher in the CLP–SAL group than in C–SAL, CLP–OA, and CLP–DEXA ( Table 1). Lung, kidney, liver and small intestine villus cell apoptosis was greater in CLP–SAL than in C–SAL animals (Table 2). OA and DEXA significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the lung, liver, and kidney, with no significant changes in small intestine villi. No differences among groups were observed regarding Nrf2, GPx and CAT mRNA expression (Fig. 3). There was a significant reduction in iNOS expression between CLP–DEXA and CLP–OA (P < 0.05) ( Fig. 3); however, no significant changes were observed between CLP–SAL vs. CLP–DEXA, and CLP–SAL vs. CLP–OA. OA increased the expression of SOD ( Fig. 3) compared to CLP–DEXA (P < 0.05).

Recognition of the tremendous contributions

of anthropoge

Recognition of the tremendous contributions

of anthropogenic sediment to modern sediment budgets by early geomorphologists (Gilbert, 1917, Happ et al., 1940 and Knox, 1972) led to a fundamental reconsideration of sediment sources in many fluvial environments. Theories of sediment delivery and storage that blossomed in the 1970s, coupled with the recognition of massive loadings of anthropic sediment, E7080 supplier lead to the inescapable conclusion that many fluvial systems are highly dynamic and not in equilibrium with regards to a balance between sediment loads and transport capacity (Trimble, 1977). For example, high sediment loadings in streams of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the northeastern USA are better explained by recruitment of anthropogenic sediment from floodplains and terraces than by intensive upland land use (Walter and Merritts, 2008 and Wohl and Rathburn, 2013). The awareness of anthropogenic sediment has a long history, although the deposits have been referred to by various names. In many regions of North America, sedimentary deposits were produced by accelerated erosion associated with intensive land clearance

and agriculture following EuroAmerican settlement (Happ et al., 1940, Happ, 1945, Knox, 1972, Knox, Bcl-2 inhibitor 1977, Knox, 1987, Knox, 2006, Trimble, 1974, Costa, 1975, Magilligan, 1985, Jacobson and Coleman, 1986, Faulkner, 1998, Lecce and Pavlowsky, 2001, Florsheim and Mount, 2003, Jackson et al., 2005, Walter and Merritts, 2008, Gellis et Dolutegravir research buy al., 2009, Merritts et al., 2011 and Hupp et al., 2013). Mining also generated large sedimentation events in North America (Gilbert, 1917, Knox, 1987, James, 1989, Leigh, 1994, Lecce, 1997, Stoughton and Marcus, 2000, Marcus et al., 2001, Bain and Brush, 2005 and Lecce et al., 2008). These anthropogenic deposits are being increasingly referred to as ‘legacy sediment’ (LS) by environmental scientists. Anthropogenic sediment does not

occur uniformly over the landscape but collects in certain locations where it creates landforms. Types of LS deposits vary greatly from colluvial drapes on hill sides, to aprons and fans at the base of hill slopes, to a variety of alluvial depositional features in channels, floodplains, deltas, lakes, and estuaries. (‘Colluvium’ is used broadly in this paper to include mass wasting as well as sheetflow and rill deposits on or at the base of hillslopes (Fairbridge, 1968). It does not necessarily connote anthropogenically produced sediment (LS) as may be implied in central Europe (Leopold and Völkel, 2007).) A typology of LS is described based on locations and geomorphology of deposits. Explanations for heterogeneous spatial patterns of LS deposits are given based on differences in sediment production, transport capacity, accommodation space in valley bottoms, and other factors that are intrinsically geomorphic.

Background maps of point-based radionuclide inventories in soils

Background maps of point-based radionuclide inventories in soils (134Cs + 137Cs, 110mAg) designed in this study (Fig.

1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4 and Fig. 7) were drawn from data provided by MEXT for these 2200 investigated locations. We hypothesized that those radionuclides were concentrated in the soil upper 2 cm layer, and that soils had a mean bulk density of 1.15−3 based on data collected in the area Selinexor manufacturer (Kato et al., 2011; Matsunaga et al., 2013). Within this set of 2200 soil samples, 110mAg activities were only reported for a selection of 345 samples that were counted long enough to detect this radioisotope (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). All activities were decay corrected to 14 June 2011. A map of total radiocaesium activities was interpolated across the entire study area by performing ordinary kriging to appreciate regional fallout patterns in soils (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 7; Chilès and Delfiner, 1988 and Goovaerts, 1997). A cross validation was then applied to the original data to corroborate the variogram model. The mean error (R) was defined as follows (Eq. selleck screening library (1)): equation(1) R=1n∑i=1nz*(xi)−z(xi),where z*(xi) is the estimated value at xi, and z(xi) is the measured value at xi. The ratio of the mean squared error to the kriging

variance was calculated as described in Eq. (2): equation(2) SR2=1n∑i=1n[z*(xi)−z(xi)]2σk2(xi),where σ2k(xi) is the theoretical estimation variance for the prediction of z*(xi). The temporal evolution of contamination in rivers draining the main radioactive plume was analyzed based on samples (described in Section 2.2) taken after the main erosive events which were expected to affect this area (i.e., the summer typhoons and the

spring snowmelt). During the first fieldwork campaign in November 2011, we travelled through the entire area where access was unrestricted (i.e., outside the area of 20-km radius centred on FDNPP; Fig. 1b) Sitaxentan and that potentially drained the main radioactive plume of Fukushima Prefecture, i.e. the Abukuma River basin (5200 km2), and the coastal catchments (Mano, Nitta and Ota Rivers, covering a total area of 525 km2). Those systems drain to the Pacific Ocean from an upstream altitude of 1835 m a.s.l. Woodland (79%) and cropland (18%) represent the main land uses in the area. Mean annual precipitation varies appreciably across the study area (1100–2000 mm), in response to the high variation of altitude and relief and the associated variable importance of snowfall. During the second campaign (April 2012), based on the results of the first survey, the size and the delineation of the study area were adapted for a set of practical, logistical and safety reasons.