It is hoped that these mutations will not affect the probability of treatment success on second-line regimens as they are based on a PI coupled with two novel NRTIs to which the patient has not been previously exposed . A number
of studies have provided data consistent with this expectation [8–10]. However, the development of thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) or other major NRTI mutations has the potential to render these second-line regimens ineffective because of the widespread cross-resistance with other NRTIs . Recent studies have suggested that failing NNRTI-based regimens have a greater susceptibility to the development of NRTI resistance mutations than do boosted PI-based regimens [12,13]. In industrialized countries, see more the increased frequency of these mutations is likely to be of little clinical consequence as regimens can be tailored to the individual resistance mutation profiles. However, whether these mutations would reduce effectiveness of the commonly available second-line regimens in RLSs is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine how the development of
specific drug resistance mutations among individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) could affect the likelihood of treatment success on the second-line regimens that are available in RLSs. The rationale for performing this study in British Columbia (BC), as compared with resource-limited settings, is that PIs are not widely available outside of industrialized countries AZD4547 concentration Protein tyrosine phosphatase and almost never used as first-line therapy [14,15]. This means that such a comparison would be difficult to conduct in these settings. Our primary explanatory variable was the third drug class (boosted PI or NNRTI) included in the participant’s initial ART regimen. The HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) study is a prospective observational cohort of all antiretroviral-naïve patients aged 18 years and
older initiating HAART in BC, Canada. It has been described in more detail elsewhere [16,17]. The BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC CfE) through the Drug Treatment Program distributes antiretroviral drugs free of charge based on specific guidelines generated by the centre’s therapeutic guidelines committee . The guidelines are largely compatible with those of the International AIDS Society–USA panel . Physicians enrolling HIV-infected individuals complete drug request forms, which compile information on the applicant’s address, past HIV-specific drug history, CD4 cell counts, plasma HIV-1 RNA, drugs requested and enrolling physician data. At the time of the first drug refill, participants are asked to provide informed consent for accessing additional medical information, including electronic records. The consent is optional and participants’ refusal to sign it does not limit access to free ART.