Results: GB/GE exposed veterans had smaller CA2 (p = 0.003) and CA3/DG (p = 0.01) subfield volumes compared to matched, unexposed GW veterans. There were no group difference in total hippocampal volume, quantified with FreeSurfer, and no dose-response relationship between estimated levels of GB/CF exposure and total hippocampal or subfield volume. Conclusions: These findings extend our previous report of structural alterations in the hippocampi of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure to volume changes
in the CA2, CA3, and DG hippocampal subfields in a different cohort of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome S63845 ic50 (OMIM 260400) was identified in 1964 by pediatricians Harry Shwachman, a leader in cystic fibrosis, and Louis K. Diamond, a hematologist, along with pediatrician and morbid anatomist Martin Bodian. Initially the syndrome’s clinical presentation included exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (lipomatous
replacement of the pancreas) and neutropenia. In 1967 skeletal changes of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia were also described, BGJ398 completing the triad of findings; these abnormalities are present in all affected children and should be viewed as an integral feature of the syndrome, also called Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.”
“The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players.
20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b(2), Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set www.selleckchem.com/products/DAPT-GSI-IX.html against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 +/- 25%) was significantly higher (p smaller than 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 +/- 21%) and zone 3 (3 +/- 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities.
The valve of choice for the mitral position was the Starr-Edwards (98%), while Medtronic-Hall and St. Jude Medical valves were favored for the aortic position
(81%).\n\nResults: The mean postoperative follow up was 64.8 +/- 53.9 months, with a total cumulative follow up of 1,792 patient-years (pt-yr); the follow up was 87% complete (n = 332). Late death occurred in 29 patients (8.7%). Long-term survival at five, 10 and 15 years was 92%, 78% and 45%, respectively, with a mean survival of 153 months. The linearized rates of thromboembolism, anticoagulation-related hemorrhage and prosthetic valve endocarditis were 1.06, 2.41 and AZD8055 datasheet 0.334% per pt-yr, respectively.\n\nConclusion: Among the rheumatic population, double valve replacement offers excellent symptomatic improvement and favorable late survival. Hemodynamic superiority and thromboresistance are the normal selection criteria for these prostheses, although the surgeon’s experience, and the ease selleck products of insertion, availability and cost of the valve also play
important roles. A strict adherence to optimal anticoagulation levels optimizes protection against thromboembolism and anticoagulation-related hemorrhage, and helps to provide the patient with a good quality life.”
“A marker for diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), which reflects on the occurrence of peripheral pathogenic mechanisms, would potentially improve therapy. The significance of alpha-Synuclein (alpha-Syn) expression in red blood cells (RBC) is currently unclear. Here we investigated whether RBC’s-expressed alpha-Syn may associate with PD. To this aim, we determined the levels of total and Galardin mouse proteinase K-resistant alpha-Syn in samples of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Twenty-one individuals with PD at various disease stages and 15 healthy controls, with similar demographic features, were recruited to this study. alpha-Syn levels were determined by their biochemical property to bind phospholipids, using a phospholipid-ELISA assay. A significantly lower ratio of total-to-proteinase K-resistant alpha-Syn
levels was detected in PD patients than in the healthy control group. However, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. Suggesting a need for additional markers to be tested in combination with alpha-Syn levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence for an association between RBCs-expressed alpha-Syn and pathogenic mechanisms involved in PD.”
“A highly purified, liquid, 10% immunoglobulin product stabilized with proline, referred to as IgPro10 has recently been developed. IgG was purified from human plasma by cold ethanol fractionation, octanoic acid precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography. The manufacturing process includes two distinctly different partitioning steps and virus filtration, which were also assessed for the removal of prions.
We show that whereas the standard modeling assumption of a smooth cell surface predicts only moderate localized effects, the more realistic “wrinkled” surface topology predicts that Ca2+ concentrations up to 80 mu M can persist within the folds of membranes for significant times. This intra-wrinkle location may account for 5% of the total cell volume. Using different geometries of wrinkles, our simulations show
ERK inhibitor that high Ca2+ microdomains will be generated most effectively by long narrow membrane wrinkles of similar dimensions to those found experimentally. This is a new concept which has not previously been considered, but which has ramifications as the intra-wrinkle location is also a strategic location at which Ca2+ acts as a regulator of the cortical cytoskeleton and plasma membrane expansion. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: The aim was to correlate the color Doppler flow activity pre- and postradiotherapy, using transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and the 2 year positive biopsy rate after radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and materials: Analysis was carried out in 69 out of 160 patients who had undergone treatment with
3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to prostate and seminal vesicles. Patients were randomized to receive 80 Gy in 40 fractions in 8 weeks (arm A) and 62 Gy in 20 fractions in 5 weeks, 4 fractions GM6001 cost per week (arm B). Color Doppler flow activity (CDFA) was evaluated calculating the vascularization index (VI), defined as the ratio
between the colored and total pixels in the whole and peripheral prostate, delineated by a radiation oncologist on CDUS images, using EcoVasc a home-made software. The difference between the 2 year post- and pre-3D-CRT maximum VI (VI(max)), named Delta VI(max), was calculated in the whole and peripheral prostate for each patient. Then, Delta VI(max) and the detected 2 year biopsy outcome were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) technique. Results: The VI(max) increased or decreased in patients with positive or negative biopsies, respectively, compared to the value before RT in both arms. The area under the ROC curve for Delta VI(max) in the whole and peripheral prostate is equal to 0.790 and 0.884, respectively. Conclusion: The Delta VI(max) index, comparing CDFA at 2 years GS-7977 molecular weight compared to that before RT, allows the 2 year postradiotherapy positive biopsy rate to be predicted. (C) 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. [DOI:10.1118/1.2990778]“
“Because of their sessile lifestyle, plants are continuously exposed to solar UV-B radiation. Inhibition of leaf growth is one of the most consistent responses of plants upon exposure to UV-B radiation. In this work, we investigated the role of GROWTH-REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs) and of microRNA miR396 in UV-B-mediated inhibition of leaf growth in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.
These neurally induced MSCs (NI-MSCs) differentiate into neuronal-and glial-like cells in vitro, release neurotrophic factors NGF and BDNF, survive and integrate after transplantation in intact spinal cord. The aim of this study was to determine whether transplanted NI-MSCs survive, differentiate, and integrate in injured spinal cord (ISC) rats and promote functional recovery.\n\nMethods: Twenty rats, half grafted with MSCs and half with NI-MSCs, were used for survival and differentiation studies. Akt inhibition Results
were analyzed using triple-labeled immunohistochemistry. For motor function studies the 3 group of adult female Sprague Dawley rats received PBS (vehicle), MSCs, or NI-MSCs, respectively. Functional outcome was measured using the BBB scale.\n\nResults: Results demonstrated gradual improvement of locomotor function in NI-MSC-transplanted rats in comparison to vehicle and non-modified MSC-transplanted animals, with statistically significant differences Lonafarnib at 7, 14, and 21 days post transplantation. Immunocytochemical studies revealed poor survival of NI-MSCs within the ISC as early
as 3 weeks after transplantation.\n\nConclusions: Thus, there is a correlation between the degree of surviving NI-MSCs and extent of functional recovery.”
“The cutting seton is an inexpensive and effective method of treating high complex perianal fistulae. Following placement of the seton, advancement through the external sphincter muscles requires progressive tightening of the seton. The requirement for maintaining the appropriate tension and onset of perianal pressure necrosis are problems frequently encountered using this technique.\n\nUsing a 3-0 polypropylene suture, a red-rubber catheter, and a nontoxic tin split-shot sinker, we minimized or eliminated these problems.\n\nWe initially used this technique in one patient with satisfactory results.\n\nThis technique is technically
easy, safe, inexpensive, and efficient, and we are using it in all patients with high perianal fistulae who require a seton.”
“Background: Injuries are the ninth leading cause of death in the world and disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries. Head injury is the leading cause of trauma death. AZD6244 manufacturer This study examines the epidemiology and outcomes of traumatic head injury presenting to a tertiary hospital in Malawi, in order to determine effective triage in a resource limited setting.\n\nMethods: The study was conducted at Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH) in Lilongwe Malawi during a three-month period. Vital signs and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were prospectively collected for all patients that presented to the casualty department secondary to head injury. All head injury admissions were followed until death or discharge.\n\nResults: During the three-month study period, 4411 patients presented to KCH secondary to trauma and 841 (19%) had a head injury.
5%). Spores encountered from stool of bacteriocin/Au-NPs group showed 92.4% viability, versus 93.7% in bacteriocin group. Spore extrusion and infectivity were most inhibited by exposure to bacteriocin/Au-NPs. Safety of bacteriocin/Au-NPs was also verified. Thus, considering the results of the present work, L acidophilus CH1-derived bacteriocin can present a powerful safe therapy against intestinal microsporidiosis. (C) 2014 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.”
“ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy (TASH) with open surgical myomectomy (SM) in patients with symptomatic hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). MethodsWe reviewed patients who underwent either procedure at our institution. The demographics, clinical outcomes, echocardiographic parameters, and complications were compared. ResultsSeventy AZD1208 price patients with HOCM were treated with either TASH (n=47, 26 male) or SM (n=23,
10 male). Compared to those treated with SM, patients undergoing TASH were older (57+/- 14.7 years versus 47 +/- 20.6 years, P=0.021) and more symptomatic. A higher proportion of patients had syncope as a presenting feature in the TASH group compared to the SM group (57.5% vs. 17.4%, P=0.002) respectively. They were also more likely to be in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV Selleck Epigenetic inhibitor compared to the patients who underwent SM (85.1% vs. 39.1%; P smaller than 0.001). Patients were followed for a mean period of 43 months (TASH) and 46 months (SM). Repeat procedures were more common in the TASH group (17% vs. 0%, P=0.04) but mitral valve replacement was more common in the SM group (0% vs. 8.7%, P=0.105). Symptom improvement, the rate of complications and all cause mortality rates were similar in both groups. ConclusionsTASH compares favorably with surgical myectomy with regard to symptom resolution, rate of complications and mortality in a tertiary referral centre and should be seen as an attractive alternative to surgical myectomy in the appropriate patient population. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“While Roscovitine nmr being stung by two large families of scorpions,
Buthidae and Scorpionidae have different symptoms and complications, a similar maintenance treatment usually considers as the scorpion species could not be identified easily. Therefore, this study was an attempt to develop an immunologic response for designing a skin sensitivity test that can be used to determine the poisoning. The sensitivity and the specificity of RPA reaction for detecting experimental envenomated mice were evaluated. The inflammatory response for detection of envenomation was obtained by the injection of a solution containing complement, polyelectrolytes and purified monovalent antibodies. As the result, 84.44% sensitivity and 100% specificity recorded 15 min after challenge. Macroscopic findings were also confirmed histologically.
The effect is prevented via G(i) inactivation by pertussis toxin pretreatment. beta(2)AR number and functional responses were greater in isolated apical cardiomyocytes than in basal cardiomyocytes, which confirmed the higher apical sensitivity and response to circulating epinephrine. In vivo studies demonstrated high-dose epinephrine can induce direct cardiomyocytes cardiodepression
and cardioprotection Ulixertinib datasheet in a beta 2AR-Gi-dependent manner. Preventing epinephereine-G(i) effects increased mortality in the Takotsubo model, whereas beta-blockers that activate beta(2)AR-G(i) exacerbated the epinephrine-dependent negative inotropic effects without further deaths. In contrast, levosimendan rescued the acure cardiac dysfunction without increased mortality.\n\nConclusions-We suggest that biased agonism of epinephrine for beta(2)-AR-G(s)
at low concentrations and for G(i) at high concentrations underpins the acute apical cardiopression observed in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, with an apical-basal gradient in beta(2)ARs explaining the differential regional responses. We suggest this epinephrine-specific beta(2)AR-G(i) signaling may have Fer-1 solubility dmso evolved as a cardioprotective stategy to limit catecholamine-induced myocardial toxicity during acute stress (Circulation. 2012; 126:697-706.)”
“Objective Variations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes have been shown to be associated with both accelerated and delayed pharmacokinetic clearance of many psychotropic medications. Citalopram is metabolized by three CYP enzymes. CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 play a primary role in citalopram metabolism, whereas CYP2D6 plays a secondary role.\n\nMethods The Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression sample was used to examine the relationship between variations in the CYP2C19 and Selleck NSC-23766 CYP2D6 genes and remission of depressive symptoms and tolerance to treatment with
citalopram. The primary analyses were of the White non-Hispanic patients adherent to the study protocol (n=1074).\n\nResults Generally, patients who had CYP2C19 genotypes associated with decreased metabolism were less likely to tolerate citalopram than those with increased metabolism, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). However, patients with the inactive 2C19*2 allele had significantly lower odds of tolerance (P = 0.02). Patients with the poor metabolism CYP2C19 genotype-based category who were classified as citalopram tolerant were more likely to experience remission (P = 0.03).\n\nNo relationship between CYP2D6 genotype-based categories and either remission or tolerance was identified, although exploratory analyses identified a potential interaction between CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 effects.
Entinostat inhibitor higher fluence, the recrystallization occurs in the core of the nanowire and the outer layer remains amorphous. The phase transformation and formation of core-shell structure are explained using the thermal spike model, radiation enhanced diffusion, and classical theory of nucleation and growth under non-equilibrium thermodynamics. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman scattering reveal further insight into the structure of the nanowires before and after ion irradiation. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles simultaneously accumulate in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is known that A beta and tau exist together in the mitochondria; however, the interactions between A beta oligomers and tau are controversial. Moreover, it is still unclear which specific domains in the tau protein Torin 2 purchase can interact with A beta oligomers and what could be the effect of these interactions. Herein, we examine three different A beta-tau oligomeric complexes. These complexes present interactions of A beta with three domains in the tau protein; all contain high beta-structure propensity in their R2, R3, and R4 repeats. Our results show that, among these, A beta oligomers are likely to interact with the R2 domain to form a stable complex with better alignment in the turn region and the beta-structure domain. We therefore propose that the R2 domain
can interact with soluble A beta oligomers and consequently promote aggregation. EM and AFM images and dimensions revealed highly polymorphic tau aggregates. We suggest that the polymorphic tau and A beta-tau aggregates may be largely due to repeat sequences which are prone to variable turn locations along the tau repeats.”
“High anti-thrombotic activity of aminoacid modified tetrahydro-beta-carbolines was generally correlated with a small proximity of the side chain of the aminoacid residue to the carboline-cycle. This paper explored that the aromatization of the tetrahydro-beta-carboline-cycle of N-(1-methyl-beta-tetrahydrocarboline-3-carbonyl)-N’-(aminoacid-acyl)-hydrazines leaded to N-(1-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carbonyl)-N’-(aminoacid-acyl)-hydrazines
and decreased the proximity of the side chain of the aminoacid residue to the carboline-cycle. The in vitro activities of inhibiting pig platelet RG-7388 clinical trial aggregation induced by PAF, ADP, and AA, as well as the in vivo anti-thrombotic activities of inhibiting rat thrombosis of these aromatized derivatives were generally higher than that of N-(1-methyl-beta-tetrahydrocarboline-3-carbonyl)-N’-(aminoacid-acyl)-hydrazines. The understanding was also obtained from the 3D QSAR analysis. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Chloroplast membranes contain a substantial excess of the nonbilayer-prone monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (GalDAG) over the biosynthetically consecutive, bilayer-forming digalactosyldiacylglycerol (GalGalDAG), yielding a high membrane curvature stress.
001) when playing against a stronger opponent. Finally, the temperature and wet
bulb globe temperature approximation were found as better indicators of the effect of environmental conditions than absolute and relative humidity or heat index on match outcomes. Conclusions In GCC region, higher temperature increased the likelihood of a favorable selleck compound outcome when playing against non-GCC teams. However, international ranking should be considered because an opponent with a higher rank reduced, but did not eliminate, the likelihood of a favorable outcome.”
“Lipid peroxidation is an oxidation reaction leading to the generation of lipid hydroperoxides. Here we present comparative data on the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by a variety of biological prenyllipids in liposomes prepared from natural lipid membranes. Lipid peroxidation was initiated by hydrophilic and hydrophobic azo initiators, as well Bafilomycin A1 nmr as by singlet oxygen generated via photosensitized reaction of hydrophobic zinc tetraphenylporphine. When lipid peroxidation was initiated in the water phase, tocopherols and plastochromanol-8 were more effective than prenylquinols, such as plastoquinol-9, ubiquinol-10 or alpha-tocopherolquinol. However, if the peroxidation was initiated
within the hydrophobic interior of liposome membranes, long-chain prenyllipids, such as plastoquinol-9 and plastochromanol-8, were considerably more active than tocopherols in the inhibition of the reaction. In the latter system, tocopherols showed even prooxidant activity. The prooxidant activity of alpha-tocopherol was prevented by plastoquinol, selleck kinase inhibitor suggesting the reduction of alpha-tocopheroxyl radical by the quinol. All the investigated prenyllipids were able to inhibit singlet oxygen-mediated lipid peroxidation but the most active were prenylquinols in this respect. Among all the prenyllipids investigated, plastochromanol-8 was the most versatile antioxidant in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation initiated by the three different methods. (C) 2012
Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed for detection and discrimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (1-137Rv and H37Ra) and M. bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from mycobacterial other than tuberculosis (MOTT). It was based on the melting curve (Tin) analysis of the gyrB gene using SYBR (R) Green 1 detection dye and the LightCycler 1.5 system. The optimal conditions for the assay were 0.25 mu mol/L of primers with 3.1 mmol/L of MgCl2 and 45 cycles of amplification. For M tuberculosis (H37Rv and H37Ra) and M. bovis BCG of the MTBC, we detected the crossing points (Cp) at cycles of 16.96 +/- 0.07, 18.02 +/- 0.14, and 18.62 +/- 0.09, respectively, while the Tm values were 90.19 +/- 0.06 degrees C, 90.27 +/- 0.09 degrees C, and 89.81 +/- 0.04 degrees C, respectively.
\n\nMETHODS: Review of recent published literature, abstracts related to MS presented at major medical conferences, and recommendations from key organizations including the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society.\n\nSUMMARY: The health economics of MS are a central issue for MCOs managing Medicaid patient populations. Additional challenges
include the anticipated expansion of the marketplace to include several new oral agents and the lack of consensus guidelines for management of patients with MS. The benefit-risk profile of new agents will need to be considered in the context Etomoxir of established first-line parenteral drugs. Management of patients with MS should include an individualized approach for each patient as part of a shared decision-making process. In the overall management of special patient populations, case management and collaborative practice models in managed care may help to ensure that critical benchmarks are achieved. J Manag Care Pharm. 2011;17(9-c):S3-S21 Copyright (C) 2011, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. All rights reserved.”
“The buildup of polyelectrolyte multilayers is investigated in solution with multiple angle null-ellipsometry. Polyanion poly(styrenesulfonate)
(PSS) and polycation poly-(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDADMAC) are adsorbed sequentially from 0.1 M NaCl solution. First the films grow parabolically. After N-trans deposited Selleck GW4869 PDADMAC/PSS layer pairs a transition from a parabolic to a linear growth occurs. For molecular weights above a threshold (M-w(PSS) > 25 kDa and M-w(PDADMAC) > 80 kDa), N-trans is 15, the thickness per layer pair in the linear growth regime is 12.3 nm. If either the PDADMAC or the PSS
molecular weight is decreased below the threshold value, N-trans either DMXAA cost falls (for PDADMAC, lowest value observed is 8) or rises (for PSS, highest value observed is 33), respectively. Simultaneously, in the linear growth regime, the thickness per layer pair decreases (down to 4.3 nm) or rises (up to 25 nm). Furthermore, for low molecular weight PSS, three growth regimes are observed: exponential, parabolic, and linear. The opposite effect of PDADMAC and PSS molecular weight reduction is discussed in terms of persistence lengths and linear charge density. The data suggest that molecular weight provides a way to control growth and internal structure of polyelectrolyte multilayers.”
“Although several prognostic factors for gastric cancer have been shown, the predictive factors of early recurrent death remain to be elucidated. This study included 402 patients who underwent a curative resection for gastric cancer. Fifty-six patients died of recurrence. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent factors correlated with survival time.
This might be due to in situ inhibition by dietary STI. STI was largely degraded within 1 h of incubation with total salivary protease (1:1). Degradation was relatively low in midgut proteases. STI interacting proteins were isolated from saliva and midgut extracts of larvae fed on STI supplemented
diet using affinity column. Most of the isolated proteins showed caseinolytic activity in zymogram. Denovo sequencing data of seven different peptides selected from trypsin digested total protein showed similarity to chymotrypsinogen, serine protease, aminopeptidase FK228 order N, peroxidase, hypothetical protein and muscle specific protein.”
“Introduction: In many countries, the prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases has been increased, which are normally associated with changes in lifestyle, that are especially characterized by high consumption
of diets rich in carbohydrates of rapid absorption. Such diets classified as high glycemic index and high glycemic load can lead to hyperglycemia.\n\nObjectives: Discuss the role of the diets of high glycemic index and/or high glycemic load on the oxidative stress and inflammatory process, in order to verify their influence on GSK3326595 chemical structure those diseases.\n\nResults and discussion: Studies demonstrate direct relationship between hyperglycemia, inflammatory process and oxidative stress that contribute to the development of chronic diseases.”
“Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a main cause of infertility and affects nearly 1% women under 40 years old. This study was aimed to utilize the side effects of tripterygium glycoside (TG) to induce a mouse Crenigacestat model of POI. 48 female KM mice were divided into four groups: control, oral, intraperitoneal injection and subcutaneous injection group. The mice in last three groups were treated with TG (50 mg.kg(-1)) daily for 35 days, while the mice in control group were treated with parallel volume of sterile water. Vaginal smears were taken to monitor the estrous cycles and
estrous frequency for the last 21 days. Ovarian and uterine index and histomorphological change were determined when finished the administration. Serum levels of FSH were assessed by ELISA. Ki-67 expression in the uterus was analyzed from using immunohistochemical detection. And the apoptosis of follicle cells were detected by TUNEL assay. The results showed that mice in subcutaneous injection group presented the critical manifestations with significantly prolonged estrous cycles, decreased estrous frequency, reduced ovarian and uterine index, and increased serum FSH levels. At this dose level, TG could reduce developing follicles and corpus luteum, and increase atretic follicles, which might be induced by the increasing levels of follicle apoptosis. The proliferation index of uterus, evaluated by histomorphological changes and the expression of Ki-67, was significantly suppressed in TG treated animals.