The review is divided into two parts, the first focusing on worki

The review is divided into two parts, the first focusing on working memory and the second on long-term memory. With regard to working memory, we discuss the neural bases of (1) control mechanisms that can select against distracting emotional information, (2) mechanisms that can regulate emotional reactions or responses, (3) how mood state influences cognitive

control, and (4) individual differences in control mechanisms. For long-term memory, we briefly review (1) the neural Substrates of emotional memory, (2) the cognitive and neural mechanisms that are involved in controlling emotional SP600125 memories and (3) how these systems are altered in post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, we consider tentative generalizations that can be drawn from this relatively unexplored conjunction of research endeavors. CH5424802 cost (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The study objective was to determine the clinical usefulness and accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes.

Methods: A retrospective analysis

of a thoracic surgery unit’s experience was performed.

Results: In a period of 19 months, 75 patients underwent the procedure (mean age = 65.5 +/- 1.6 years; male to female 2: 1) most commonly for mediastinal lymphadenopathy in the setting of diagnosed or suspected lung cancer. It was diagnostic in 68.9% after rapid on-site evaluation and 74.3% after final cytologic examination. The rapid on-site evaluation and final cytology results were discordant in 16.2% (P <. MK-8931 cost 001). In 50 cases, the needle aspirate cytology could be compared with pathology results. The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of cancer were 85% and 100%, respectively. The false-negative rate endobronchial ultrasound cytology was 8.1%. Mediastinal lymph node station 7 was most commonly biopsied. The stations with the highest diagnostic yield were: 11R, 3, 10L, and 7. Of the patients with a positive

positron emission tomography scan with suspected clinical stage III lung cancer, cancer was downstaged in 40% after endobronchial ultrasound.

Conclusion: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle aspiration is a clinically useful minimally invasive option for lung cancer staging and evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The procedure should be considered complementary to mediastinoscopy.”
“Neural mechanisms of cognitive control enable us to initiate, coordinate and update behaviour. Central to successful control is the ability to suppress actions that are no longer relevant or required. In this article, we review the contribution of cognitive neuroscience, molecular genetics and clinical investigations to understanding how response inhibition is mediated in the human brain. In Section 1, we consider insights into the neural basis of inhibitory control from the effects of neural interference, neural dysfunction, and drug addiction.

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