All patients underwent voiding cystourethrography 3 to 4 months p

All patients underwent voiding cystourethrography 3 to 4 months postoperatively. Reflux resolution rate https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AC-220.html for ureters was significantly higher in the advancement group (100%) than in the nonadvancement group (85%, p +/- 0.05). No patient in the advancement group had postoperative urinary tract infection. Fixation of the ureter with the bladder muscularis at the proximal limit of the detrusor defect and/or a percutaneous hitch stitch placed in the ventral side of the proximal limit of the detrusor defect facilitated ureteral

advancement.

Conclusions: Ureteral advancement is a simple and feasible procedure in laparoscopic ureteral extravesical reimplantation and may improve the resolution rate of vesicoureteral reflux.”
“Background. Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are well established and are known to be present during the first episode of a psychotic disorder. In addition, consistent heterogeneity within these impairments remains unexplained. selleck chemical One potential source of variability may be the level of pre-morbid adjustment

prior to the onset of first-episode psychosis (FED).

Method. Ninety-four FED patients and 32 healthy controls were assessed at baseline on several neuropsychological tests comprising six cognitive domains (verbal memory, visual memory, working memory, processing speed, reasoning/problem-solving and attention) and an abbreviated version of the full IQ. A global neurocognitive domain was also computed. Pre-morbid adjustment patterns Rabusertib molecular weight were divided into three distinct groups: stable-poor, stable-good and deteriorating course.

Results. Based on a cut-off of 0.8 for effect size, the stable-poor pre-morbid adjustment group was significantly more impaired on most cognitive domains and full IQ compared to the deteriorating group, who were more severely impaired on all measures compared to the stable-good group. The type of cognitive deficit within each subgroup did not differ and the results indicate that a global neurocognition measure may reliably reflect the severity

of cognitive impairment within each subgroup.

Conclusions. Pre-morbid adjustment patterns prior to onset of psychosis are associated with severity but not type of cognitive impairment. Patients in the stable-poor group are generally more impaired compared to the deteriorating group, who are, in turn, more impaired than the stable-good group.”
“Purpose: We evaluated voiding habits and lower urinary tract symptoms by age and gender in a large population of individuals from childhood to adulthood.

Materials and Methods: We studied a cross-sectional sample of 594 individuals 4 to 26 years old randomly selected from the population register of Finland. Participants anonymously answered a detailed postal questionnaire on lower urinary tract symptoms.

Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed nucleolar localizatio

Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed nucleolar localization of PICT-1, whereas KS-Bcl-2 was located mostly at the mitochondrial membranes with a small fraction in the nucleoli. Ectopic expression of PICT-1 resulted in a large increase in the nucleolar fraction of KS-Bcl-2, and only a minor fraction remained in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous PICT-1 abolished the nucleolar localization of KS-Bcl-2. However, ectopically expressed PICT-1 selleck kinase inhibitor did not alter the cellular distribution of human Bcl-2. Subsequent analysis mapped the crucial amino

acid sequences of both KS-Bcl-2 and PICT-1 required for their interaction and for KS-Bcl-2 targeting to the nucleolus. Functional studies suggest a correlation between nucleolar targeting of KS-Bcl-2 by PICT-1 and reduction of the antiapoptotic activity

of KS-Bcl-2. Thus, these studies demonstrate a cellular mechanism to sequester KS-Bcl-2 from the mitochondria and to downregulate its virally encoded antiapoptotic activity. Additional characterization of the interaction of KS-Bcl-2 and PICT-1 is likely to shed light on the functions of both proteins.”
“THE NEUROSURGICAL APPRENTICESHIP is arduous, and the rigor of the discipline combined with the demands of any see more type of neurosurgical practice is, if not exhausting, at least wearying. By the age of 60 or so, operating all-day and taking call all night is no longer as compelling as it was earlier. However, preparing to retire, we might discover that having become a board-certified neurosurgeon has excluded many other options. Accustomed to working, complete retirement is not appealing to some. Maybe

there is more to learn, more delight to be found, more care to be rendered.”
“Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) contributes to pathogenic processes in immunosuppressed individuals, in fetuses, and in neonates. AZD5582 manufacturer In the present report, by using reporter gene activation assays and confocal microscopy in the presence of a specific antagonist, we show for the first time that HCMV infection induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) transcriptional activity in infected cells. We demonstrate that the PPAR gamma antagonist dramatically impairs virus production and that the major immediate-early promoter contains PPAR response elements able to bind PPAR gamma, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Due to the key role of PPAR gamma in placentation and its specific trophoblast expression within the human placenta, we then provided evidence that by activating PPAR gamma human cytomegalovirus dramatically impaired early human trophoblast migration and invasiveness, as assessed by using well-established in vitro models of invasive trophoblast, i.e.

The majority of sera collected from mice immunized with mgG-2 plu

The majority of sera collected from mice immunized with mgG-2 plus CpG showed macrophage-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytolysis, while no neutralization activity was observed. In conclusion, we have shown that immunization with the type-specific mgG-2 protein in combination with CpG could elicit protective immunity against an otherwise lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge. The mgG-2 protein may therefore constitute a promising HSV-2 vaccine antigen to be considered for future human

trials.”
“BACKGROUND: To manage arachnoid cysts, incorporation with the normal circulation is the single most NU7026 mw important determinant of success. Although the postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage rate is 3.9% for all cases of transsphenoidal surgery, it is 21.4% for intrasellar arachnoid cysts.

OBJECTIVE: To present a safe, relatively easy, and effective treatment option for very rare intrasellar arachnoid cysts.

METHODS: We performed a prospective study of intrasellar cystic lesions without a solid portion. Endoscopic exploration and fenestration were performed for all lesions under neuronavigational guidance. We analyzed presenting symptoms, endocrinological status, and magnetic resonance images.

RESULTS: There were 2 male and 4 female patients with a mean age of 45 years

(range, 27-67 years). All patients presented with the visual disturbance of bitemporal hemianopsia. Four patients LEE011 concentration had endocrinological symptoms including galactorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and diabetes insipidus. Endoscopic fenestration of the cyst was successfully performed

in all patients. All patients were confirmed to have a pure cystic lesion, namely an arachnoid cyst. The follow-up period was 10 months on average (range, 6-12 months). Visual disturbance improved in 5 patients. Endocrinological problems persisted in all patients for 3 months VX-809 and then normalized, with the exception of the patient with diabetes insipidus. There was no evidence of recurrence in any of the 6 patients in the 12-month postoperative imaging studies (median follow-up of 10 months). Two patients showed syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone at 2 and 4 weeks after the operation, but antidiuretic hormones recovered to normal levels after this time point.

CONCLUSION: Endoscopic fenestration of an intrasellar arachnoid cyst is a safe and simple procedure without serious complications.”
“An in-frame, 114-nucleotide-long deletion that affects the NS-coding sequence was created in the infectious molecular clone of the standard parvovirus H-1PV, thereby generating Del H-1PV. The plasmid was transfected and further propagated in permissive human cell lines in order to analyze the effects of the deletion on virus fitness.

The results found here highlight the need to consider asexual rep

The results found here highlight the need to consider asexual reproduction along with mixed mating in models of genetic load and mutation-selection balance. (C) 2012

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND

The onset of puberty is first detected as an increase in pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in central precocious puberty. The timing of pubertal development is driven in part by genetic factors, but selleck products only a few, rare molecular defects associated with central precocious puberty have been identified.

METHODS

We performed whole-exome sequencing in 40 members of 15 families with central precocious puberty. Candidate variants were confirmed with Sanger sequencing. We also performed quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assays to determine levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) in buy PRN1371 the hypothalami of mice at different ages.

RESULTS

We identified four novel heterozygous mutations in MKRN3, the gene encoding makorin RING-finger protein 3, in 5 of the 15 families; both sexes

were affected. The mutations included three frameshift mutations, predicted to encode truncated proteins, and one missense mutation, predicted to disrupt protein function. MKRN3 is a paternally expressed, imprinted gene located in the Prader-Willi syndrome critical region (chromosome 15q11-q13). All affected persons inherited the mutations from their fathers, a finding that indicates perfect segregation selleck screening library with the mode of inheritance expected

for an imprinted gene. Levels of Mkrn3 mRNA were high in the arcuate nucleus of prepubertal mice, decreased immediately before puberty, and remained low after puberty.

CONCLUSIONS

Deficiency of MKRN3 causes central precocious puberty in humans.”
“An organism can be defined as omnivorous if it feeds on more than one trophic level. Omnivory is present in many ecosystems and multiple omnivorous species can coexist in the same ecosystem. How coexisting omnivores are able to avoid competitive exclusion is very much an open question. In this paper we analyze a model of a community consisting of two omnivorous predators and a basal resource. The population of both predators is explicitly structured into juveniles and adults, of which juveniles only feed on basal resource and adults feed on a varied proportion of basal resource and juveniles of the other population. We thereby separate the omnivorous roles (competitor for basal resource and predator of competitors) over life history. We show in this study that persistence of multiple omnivorous predators is possible when predators differ in adult diets. In this case, coexistence occurs because community dynamics force one of the model species to act as a predator and the other to act as a consumer.

It presented identical to the respective, fully analytically char

It presented identical to the respective, fully analytically characterized Re-185/187 complex retention time in RP-HPLC. In contrary to other RGD derivatives, Hormones inhibitor we showed that the new radiopeptide exhibits kidney uptake and urine excretion due to the ornithine linker. High tumor uptake (3.87 +/- 0.48% ID/g at 60 min p.i.) was observed and was maintained relatively high even at 24 h p.i. (1.83 +/- 0.05 % ID/g), thus providing well-defined scintigraphic imaging. Accumulation in other organs was negligible. Blocking experiments indicated target specificity for integrin receptors in

U87MG glioblastoma cells.

Conclusion: Due to its relatively high tumor uptake, renal elimination and negligible abdominal localization, the new Tc-99m-RGD peptide is considered promising in the field of imaging alpha(v)beta(3)-positive tumors. However, the preparation of multifunctional SPECT/MRI contrast agents (RGD-conjugated nanoparticles) for dual selleck products modality imaging of integrin expressing tumors should be further investigated. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Hepatocellular

carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers with few treatment options. It is a hypervascular tumor in which angiogenesis plays a critical role in its progression. Tumor capillary endothelial cells (TECs) in HCC are known to originate from liver sinusoid endothelial cells, which then go through a capillarization process to become morphologically as well as functionally different TECs. In this work, we investigated proteins differentially expressed between freshly isolated TECs and sinusoid endothelial

cells from well-formed rat HCC using 2-D DIGE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Thirty-eight unique proteins were identified to be differentially expressed more than twofold between the two endothelial cell types. Amongst the differentially expressed proteins, two novel endothelial markers, EH domain-containing protein 3 and galectin-3, were confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry in both rat and human HCC samples. We showed that EH domain-containing protein 3 is significantly only down-regulated in TECs, but galectin-3 is up-regulated. We propose possible roles of these two proteins in tumor vessel development in HCC.”
“Introduction: Hypoxia imaging is an important field in radiopharmaceutical research since hypoxic cells are very resistant to radiation treatment and diffusional limitations restrict the efficacy of chemotherapy. Gallium-68 is a widely used radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET) due to the availability of the Ge-68/Ga-68-generator. With the aim to develop new potential [Ga-68]-radiopharmaceuticals for imaging hypoxia, we have synthesized and evaluated two novel Ga-68-labelled 5-nitroimidazole derivatives.

The results showed that impulsivity was not associated with highe

The results showed that impulsivity was not associated with higher rates of drug-seeking/taking, but individual differences in smoking uptake and craving were. Rather, nonplanning impulsivity moderated (decreased) the relationship between craving and drug-taking, but not drug-seeking.

These data suggest that whereas the uptake of drug use is mediated by hypervaluation of the drug as an instrumental goal, the orthogonal trait nonplanning impulsivity confers a propensity for automatic control over well-practiced drug-taking behaviour.”
“Background: Only

local ablation (radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy) or esophagectomy currently is available to treat high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Alternative treatments, specifically chemopreventive strategies, are lacking. Our understanding of the molecular changes of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus offers an opportunity to inhibit neoplastic progression of high-grade dysplasia in Dinaciclib supplier Barrett’s esophagus. Increased activity of the Src kinase and deregulation of the tumor suppressor p27 are features of malignant cells and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Src phosphorylates p27, inhibiting its regulatory function and increasing cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that a small molecule inhibitor of Src

might reduce the growth and reverse Src-mediated deregulation of p27 in Barrett’s esophagus Staurosporine cells.

Methods: Immortalized Barrett’s esophagus cell lines 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase established from patient biopsies were treated with the Src kinase inhibitor dasatinib and evaluated for p27 localization and protein levels, as well as for effects on the cell cycle and apoptosis using flow cytometry, viability assays, and protein and RNA markers.

Results: Dasatinib reduced both Src activation and p27 phosphorylation and increased p27 protein levels and nuclear localization. These effects correlated with decreased proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, and activation of apoptosis. Analysis of biopsies of patients with Barrett’s esophagus revealed the presence of phosphorylated p27 in high-grade dysplasia, consistent with

in vitro findings.

Conclusions: Dasatinib has considerable antineoplastic effects on Barrett’s esophagus cell lines carrying genetic markers associated with dysplasia, which correlates with the reversal of p27 deregulation. These findings suggest that dasatinib has potential as a treatment for patients with high-grade dysplasia and Barrett’s esophagus and that p27 holds promise as a biomarker in the clinical use of dasatinib in patients with high-grade dysplasia and Barrett’s esophagus. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013;145:531-8)”
“The serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor is implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders, making it an important, clinically relevant target. Despite the availability of transgenic mouse lines, the native mouse 5-HT2A receptor is not well-characterized.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Purpose: A bar

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: A barrier to the acceptance of active surveillance for men with prostate cancer is the risk of underestimating the cancer burden on initial biopsy. We assessed the value of endorectal magnetic resonance imaging in predicting upgrading on confirmatory biopsy in men with low risk prostate

cancer.

Materials and Methods: A total of 388 consecutive men (mean age 60.6 years, range 33 to 89) with clinically Selleckchem Volasertib low risk prostate cancer (initial biopsy Gleason score 6 or less, prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml, clinical stage T2a or less) underwent endorectal magnetic resonance imaging before confirmatory biopsy. Three radiologists independently and retrospectively scored tumor visibility on endorectal magnetic resonance imaging using a 5-point scale (1-definitely no tumor to 5-definitely tumor). Inter-reader agreement CH5183284 supplier was assessed with weighted kappa statistics. Associations between magnetic resonance imaging scores and confirmatory biopsy findings were evaluated using measures of diagnostic performance

and multivariate logistic regression.

Results: On confirmatory biopsy, Gleason score was upgraded in 79 of 388 (20%) patients. Magnetic resonance imaging scores of 2 or less had a high negative predictive value (0.96-1.0) and specificity (0.95-1.0) for upgrading on confirmatory biopsy. A magnetic resonance imaging score of 5 was highly sensitive for upgrading on confirmatory biopsy (0.87-0.98). At multivariate analysis patients with higher magnetic resonance imaging scores were more likely to have disease upgraded on confirmatory biopsy (odds ratio 2.16-3.97). Inter-reader agreement

and diagnostic performance were higher for the more experienced readers (kappa 0.41-0.61, AUC 0.76-0.79) than for the least experienced reader (kappa 0.15-0.39, AUC 0.61-0.69). Magnetic resonance imaging performed similarly in predicting low risk and very low risk (Gleason score 6, less than 3 positive cores, less than 50% involvement in all cores) prostate cancer.

Conclusions: Adding endorectal magnetic resonance imaging to the initial clinical evaluation of men with clinically low risk prostate cancer helps predict findings on confirmatory biopsy Regorafenib order and assess eligibility for active surveillance.”
“Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a proglucagon-derived peptide released from enteroendocrine cells and neurons. We recently reported that GLP-2 induced hypotension. In the present study, we characterized the mechanisms of GLP-2-induced hypotension. GLP-2 was administered peripherally or centrally to male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane and alpha-chloralose. The rats were vagotomized or systemically pretreated with atropine, prazosin, or propranolol before the GLP-2 administration. The central and peripheral administration of GLP-2 reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP).

Future directions in rodent pain imaging include miniaturized PET

Future directions in rodent pain imaging include miniaturized PET for the freely moving animal, as well as new MRI techniques that enable ongoing chronic pain imaging. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“An animal model to study human infectious diseases should accurately reproduce MCC950 solubility dmso the various aspects of disease. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) are closely related to humans in terms of anatomy, genetics and physiology, and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. Indeed, experiments in pigs

are much more likely to be predictive of therapeutic treatments in humans than experiments in rodents. In this review, we highlight the numerous advantages of the pig model for infectious disease research and vaccine development and document a few examples of human microbial infectious diseases for which the use of pigs as animal models has contributed to the acquisition of new knowledge to improve both animal and human health.”
“Purpose: We determined whether data mining derived algorithms from electronic databases can improve empirical antimicrobial therapy in outpatients with a urinary tract infection.

Materials

and Methods: The electronic medical records from 3,308 visits associated with a positive urine culture at Northwestern’s outpatient Urology and Internal Medicine clinics and Emergency Department from 2005 to 2009 were interrogated. Bacterial species

and susceptibility rates for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin Taselisib in vitro and nitrofurantoin were compared. Using data mining techniques we created algorithms for empirical therapy of urinary tract infections and compared the theoretical outcomes from data mining derived therapy to those from conventional therapy.

Results: Patients were significantly older in the Department of Urology vs Internal Medicine vs Emergency Department, and more patients in the Department of Urology were male. During the 5-year period the susceptibility rates for ciprofloxacin in the Department of Urology and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Internal Medicine Mephenoxalone decreased significantly. In the Department of Urology the susceptibility rate for nitrofurantoin was greater than for ciprofloxacin, which was greater than for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In all departments, bacteria were more resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than to ciprofloxacin or nitrofurantoin. All drugs were more effective in the Emergency Department and Internal Medicine than the Department of Urology. Prior resistance patterns were the strongest predictor of current susceptibility profiles. In the Department of Urology the algorithms for patients with or without prior cultures theoretically outperformed conventional therapy in men (13.2%) and women (10.1%).

(J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;141:1063-9)”
“Objective: The

(J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;141:1063-9)”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether different techniques used for antegrade cerebral perfusion could account for variation in the perfusion adequacy of the brain and spinal cord.

Methods: Selected vessels were ligated in 30 rats, recreating a selection of approaches used in aortic arch surgery for patients undergoing circulatory arrest with antegrade

cerebral perfusion. Filling of spinal and cerebral vessels was mapped after cannulation Selleck Flavopiridol and perfusion with E20, gelatin/India ink, or buffered saline/India ink. Three clinical approaches were replicated: unilateral perfusion, bilateral perfusion, and bilateral perfusion with additional left subclavian artery perfusion. Filling

of the spinal arteries via the common carotid arteries or the subclavian arteries alone was examined. Penetration of the marker was analyzed histologically.

Results: The control experiments achieved Stattic ic50 maximal arterial filling of both brain and spinal cord at gross and microscopic levels. Unilateral and bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion provided comprehensive arterial filling of all cerebral vessels with all vascular markers. In contrast, only bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion provided complete spinal cord perfusion with all markers. Unilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion with a viscous marker resulted in significantly reduced spinal cord arterial filling. Examination of the relative importance of either both common carotid arteries alone or both subclavian arteries alone, in terms of their adequacy of subsequent arterial filling of the spinal cord, showed severe impairment of spinal cord perfusion with either technique. Thus perfusion of both common carotid arteries resulted in only the proximal 30% of the spinal cord arteries being filled, whereas perfusion SB-3CT of both subclavian arteries resulted in only the proximal 40% of the spinal cord arteries being filled.

Conclusions: Approaches to antegrade cerebral perfusion using the brachiocephalic and left common carotid arteries together gave

good perfusion of both the brain and the spinal cord. Brachiocephalic perfusion alone gave good cerebral perfusion but showed some significant limitation in spinal cord perfusion with one vascular marker. Complete spinal cord perfusion with all markers under conditions of antegrade cerebral perfusion required some contribution from both the carotid system and the subclavian system together. Selected perfusion of either system alone was very inadequate for spinal cord perfusion. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;141:1070-6)”
“Genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed two separable long-term memory pathways defined as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-lasting long-term memory (LLTM). ARM is disrupted in radish (rsh) mutants, whereas LLTM requires CREB-dependent protein synthesis.

Consequently, oxidative stress in cells and tissues is a central

Consequently, oxidative stress in cells and tissues is a central mechanism by which PM exposure leads to injury, disease, and mortality.”
“We analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of detoxifying

enzymes and enzymes of the ascorbate (ASC) acid cycle in avocado fruit (Pesea Americana Mill cv Hass) in response to wounding. The levels of superoxide anion (O(2) buy Verubecestat (-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH(.)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased at 15 min and 2 and 15 h post-wounding. Peroxidase (POD) activity had increased to high levels 24 h after wounding; in contrast, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels hat decreased significantly at 24 h post-treatment. Basic POD was the major POD form induced, and the levels of at least three apoplastic POD isozymes -increased

following wounding. Using specific inhibitors, we characterized NU7441 supplier one MnSOD and two CuZnSOD isozymes. CuZnSOD activities decreased notably 12 h after treatment. The activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase increased dramatically following the wounding treatment, possibly as a means to compensate for the redox changes due to ROS production.”
“The rising median age of our population and the age-dependent risk of neurodegeneration translate to exponentially increasing numbers of afflicted individuals in the coming years. Although symptomatic treatments are available for some neurodegenerative diseases, most are only moderately efficacious and are often associated with significant side effects. The development of small molecule, disease-modifying drugs has been hindered by complex pathogenesis and a failure to clearly define the rate-limiting steps in disease progression. An

alternative approach is to directly target the mutant gene product or a defined causative protein. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) – with their diverse functionality, high target specificity, and relative ease of central nervous system (CNS) delivery – are uniquely positioned as potential therapies Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor for neurological diseases. Here we review the development of ASOs for the treatment of inherited neurodegenerative diseases.”
“The functional role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) and its cortical network in memory processes is discussed controversially. While Aggleton and Brown (1999) suggested a role for recognition and not recall, Van der Werf et al. (2003) suggested that this nucleus is functionally related to executive function and strategic retrieval, based on its connections to the prefrontal cortices (PFC). The present study used a lesion approach including patients with focal thalamic lesions to examine the functions of the MD, the intralaminar nuclei and the midline nuclei in memory processing. A newly designed pair association task was used, which allowed the assessment of recognition and cued recall performance.

Volume loss in thalamic nuclei was estimated as a predictor for alterations in memory performance.