Primary outcome measures included measures of pain and functional MM-102 price capacity. Secondary outcome measures included weight loss and body composition; serum blood and hormones; and, measures of quality of life. All participants were tested for changes in energy intake; anthropometrics; body composition; resting energy expenditure; cardiovascular and muscular fitness; balance and functional capacity; serum and whole blood clinical
markers; hormonal profiles; pain selleck chemical indices; and, psychosocial parameters after 0, 10, and 14 weeks of training, dieting, and supplementation. Participants This research protocol was reviewed and approved by the university Institutional Review Board prior to initiation. Participants were recruited through area physicians, advertisements in local newspapers, campus flyers, and Internet advertisements. Interested participants were asked to contact the laboratory for an initial telephone pre-screening interview. General entrance criteria included being a female with physician diagnosed
CH5424802 research buy OA between the ages of 18-70 years with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 27 kg/m2 and no recent participation in a diet or exercise program. Individuals who met initial entrance criteria were invited to attend a familiarization session in which the details of the study were explained, human subject consent forms were signed, and personal and medical history information obtained. Subjects were not allowed to participate in this study if they: 1.) were pregnant, became pregnant, or had a desire for pregnancy; 2.) had any metabolic disorder including known electrolyte abnormalities, heart disease, arrhythmias, Etomidate diabetes, or thyroid disease; 3.) had a history of hypertension, hepatorenal, musculoskeletal, autoimmune, or neurological disease (other than knee OA); 4.) were taking thyroid, hyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic, or anti-hypertensive
medications; 5.) had taken ergogenic levels of nutritional supplements that may affect muscle mass (e.g., creatine, HMB), anabolic/catabolic hormone levels (e.g., DHEA), or weight loss supplements (e.g., thermogenics) within three months prior to the start of the study; 6.) were ingesting any anti-inflammatory products two weeks before the start of the study or additional products during the study; 7.) reported any unusual adverse events associated with this study in which the supervising physician recommended removal from the study; 8.) had significant injury or surgery to the lower extremity or spine within the last six months; 9.) did not indicate a minimal amount of perceived pain and physical function limitation on inventories used in the study; 10.) had severe arthritis that required surgery and greatly limited functionality (inability to perform lunge); or, 11.) had arthritis that required the current use of physiotherapy modalities.