# Genome sequencing The genome sequences of H pylori

Genome sequencing The genome sequences of H. pylori strains F16, F30, F32 and F57 were determined by a whole-genome shotgun strategy. We constructed small-insert (2 kb) and large-insert (10 kb) plasmid libraries from genomic DNA, and sequenced both ends of the clones to obtain 26,112 (F16 and F57), 30,720 (F30) and 33,792 (F32) sequences using ABI 3730xl sequencers (Applied Biosystems),

with coverage of 10.0 (F16)-, 11.5 (F30)-, 12.7 (F32)- and 10.0 (F57)-fold. Sequence reads were assembled with the Phred-Phrap-Consed program, and gaps were closed by direct sequencing of clones that spanned the gaps or with PCR products amplified using oligonucleotide primers designed against Transferase inhibitor the ends of neighboring contigs. The overall accuracy of the finished sequence was estimated to have an error rate of less than 1 per 10,000 bases (Phrap score of ≥40). Sequences of the molybdenum-related genes and the genes in the acetate pathway of the four Japanese strains were verified by resequencing PCR fragments directly amplified selleck chemicals llc from genomic DNA (primers are in Additional file 4 (= Table S3)). The genome sequences of other strains were obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) [123]. Accession numbers

are in Table 1. Gene finding and annotation We used the same protocol to identify genes in the four new strains and 16 other complete genomes (Table 1; gene assignment differences are in Additional file 8 (= Table 6)). Protein-coding genes were identified by integrating predictions from programs GeneMarkS [124] and GLIMMER3 [125]. All ORFs longer than 10 amino acids were searched using BLASTP [126] against two databases, one composed of genes of 6 H. pylori genomes in RefSeq database at NCBI (“”close”" database), and the other composed of genes of 300 complete prokaryote genomes (one genome per one genus) available at the end of 2008, except for those in the Helicobacter genus (“”distant”" database). When the predicted start position differed in GeneMarkS and GLIMMER3, assignments were made by consensus of hits, with consensus against the “”distant”" database taking

priority over the “”close”" one. The consensus start position among bidirectional best hits with 50% or more amino acid sequence identity for each matched region for each genome pair BIBF-1120 was determined by majority rule. Overlap of genes was resolved by comparing the results from four prediction programs. Genes encoding fewer than 100 amino acids and predicted only by Glimmer3 were dropped except for the microcin gene. tRNA genes were detected using tRNAscan-SE [127]. rRNA genes were identified based on sequence conservation. Putative replication origins were predicted by GC-skew (window size 500 bp, window shift 250 bp). Core genome analysis The common core structure conserved among 20 H. pylori genomes was identified based on conservation of gene order among orthologs using the CoreAligner program [23] SB273005 implemented in the RECOG system.

# We also find that the enhancement of RET rate in the single nanor

We also find that the enhancement of RET rate in the single nanorod structure decreases when the donor and acceptor have nonparallel selleck chemicals dipole moment directions. We then propose simple V-shaped nanorod structures for a donor-acceptor LEE011 supplier pair with nonparallel dipole moments. We find that these structures can lead to a remarkable resonance energy transfer enhancement ten times larger than

that by the single nanorod structure. We demonstrate that the enhancing effect by these structures can be controlled by the nanorod length of the branch in the V-shaped structure and that these structures are robust regardless of the shape and material of the corner part. This controllability and robustness are also preserved for donor-dipole pair with asymmetric configuration. Therefore, these structures can be applied in integrated

photonic devices. Methods Without the loss of generality, we quantify the enhancement of RET by the normalized energy transfer rate (nETR), which means that the RET rate normalized to the case in vacuum. The nETR is given as [32, 33] (1) where n A and n D are the unit vectors along the directions of the dipole moments of the acceptor and donor, respectively, ω is the transition frequency, G(r A , r D , ω) is the dyadic Green’s function [34], E D (r A , ω) is the electric field at the position SN-38 mouse of the acceptor induced by the donor dipole in the presence of the plasmonic structures, while G vac(r A , r D , ω) and E D,vac(r A , ω) correspond to the case in vacuum but without the plasmonic Progesterone structures.

The calculations of the electric field induced by the dipole are performed by the finite element method with the commercial COMSOL Multiphysics software. All metal structures in this paper are set to be silver; the electric permittivity of silver is gathered by fitting the experimental data of Johnson and Christy with piecewise cubic interpolation [35]. All nanostructures are set on a semi-infinite SiO2 substrate with the refractive index of 1.456, and the surrounding medium is air. Results and discussion Firstly, we consider single Ag nanorod structures with different cross sections. The schematic pictures of the single nanorod structures and their cross sections are shown in Figure 1a,b. The donor and acceptor dipoles are both aligned to the center axis of the nanorod at different ends, the distance from each dipole to the end of the nanorod is d = 20 nm, and the longitudinal length of the nanorods is set to L = 250 nm. Notice that the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance modes of the nanorods are responsible for the enhancement of the RET rate; in order to compare the ability of different nanorods to enhance the RET, we tune the parameters a, r, and w to make the resonance frequencies of their longitudinal surface plasmon modes approximately equal.

# Added to this is the evidence of the heterogeneity in the measure

Added to this is the evidence of the heterogeneity in the measurement of the outcome of back pain within this review. Studies differed in their assessment (patient rated, biomechanical testing, compensation MDV3100 status, different time scales for assessment) which makes comparisons all the more complex; future reviews should consider this issue. Comparison with other reviews This review has concentrated on the effects of employment social support, whereas most other reviews have considered this as part of

a wider search of employment psychosocial factors. This has led other reviews to include only a small number of studies on which to base their conclusions, for example, Steenstra et al. (2005) based theirs on four studies, Hoogendoorn et al. (2000) on six studies and Hartvigsen et al. (2004) on nine studies. The greater number of studies included in this review (thirty-two)

has enabled a more specified focus on employment support type and outcome (risk and prognosis), which we believe has overcome some of the issues of heterogeneity and inconsistency described by previous reviews. Strengths and limitations While this review has a comprehensive systematic search strategy, it did not include studies in languages other than English and so may have missed important findings; however, we did include studies from a range of countries worldwide. In addition, no review is completely immune from publication Selleckchem PP2 bias, and it may be the case that there are other findings (grey literature) we have not accessed. Strengths of the study are: the use of a systematic critical synthesis of the evidence which has enabled a closer inspection of the term employment social support and a better assessment of the types of support combined with an examination of individual study bias on the associations. Further selleck chemicals research This review has highlighted a need for consensus on what is meant by the term ‘employment social support’. As mentioned previously, there are Vasopressin Receptor a number of differing conceptualisations and future

research needs to report on those concepts to facilitate easier comparisons for future reviews but also, more importantly, to understand what factors of employment social support associate with outcomes. Secondly, and related to the first point, there is a need for research to consider the role of theoretical models within their research. Many studies (over 50 % in this review) employed the Karasek Job Content Questionnaire, or a derivative, as their measure of employment social support. However, studies did not perform the appropriate analysis techniques to ascertain whether employment social support is a moderator component as prescribed by the Karasek model. Conclusion This review has shown that employment-related support has little to no effect on risk of occurrence but a more notable effect on prognosis for those with back pain.

# In a recent study the effects of 3 grams per day of HMB-Ca on mal

In a recent study the effects of 3 grams per day of HMB-Ca on male and female elite adolescent (13–18 yrs) volleyball players during the first seven weeks of their training season was investigated [56]. Their results demonstrated that FFM increased in the HMB-Ca supplemented group, but not placebo supplemented group. Moreover FM declined (−6.6 %) in the HMB-Ca supplemented, but not placebo supplemented group (+3.5 %). In addition, Wingate test peak power, and upper- and lower-body strength were greater with HMB-Ca supplementation. No changes

in hormone status (testosterone, cortisol, IGF-1, growth hormone) or inflammatory mediators (IL-6 learn more and IL-1 receptor antagonist) occurred with HMB-Ca MEK inhibitor supplementation. HMB supplementation in aging and masters athletes Skeletal muscle loss is a part of the aging process and approximately 30% of skeletal muscle mass is lost between the 5th and 8th decades of life [57]. This reduction in skeletal muscle mass occurs for several reasons, including maintaining a sedentary lifestyle, malnutrition, insulin resistance,

oxidative stress, and alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism and repair (as reviewed by Kim et al. [58]). In addition, the elderly exhibit impaired anabolic and anti-catabolic responsiveness to resistance exercise and amino acid feeding, termed anabolic resistance [59]. Anabolic resistance can be overcome by supplementation of leucine, and it has been hypothesized that this may be due to the conversion of leucine to HMB [52]. These data suggest a potential benefit of HMB supplementation in aging individuals [58, 60]. Studies have Rucaparib clinical trial investigated the effects of nutritional supplements containing HMB, without an exercise intervention, on skeletal muscle mass in the elderly (reviewed by [61]). Flakoll et al. [62] investigated the effects of 12 weeks of either HMB, arginine and lysine supplementation or placebo supplementation in 50 elderly subjects and this website observed an increase in LBM, leg strength, handgrip strength, and a decreased “timed

up and go” test time in the HMB-supplemented group compared to the placebo-supplemented group. Baier et al. [37] investigated the effects of one year of either HMB, arginine, and lysine supplementation or control supplementation in 77 elderly subjects over 65 years of age and observed significant increases in lean mass in the HMB-supplemented group and no change in lean mass in the control-supplemented group. Moreover, an increased rate of protein turnover in the HMB group and a decreased rate of protein turnover in the placebo group were observed after both three and 12 months of supplementation. In addition to the beneficial effects of HMB on skeletal muscle, HMB supplementation may also have effects on body fat. Wilson et al.

# Despite the lack of any biophysical mechanism which would be able

Despite the lack of any biophysical mechanism which would be able to explain such interactions, the results not only confirm the group’s previous findings, but they apparently extend them to another frequency range (UMTS, around 1,950 MHz) and to lower SAR levels which are well below internationally accepted exposure limits for the general public (ICNIRP 1998). The arguments given in SB-715992 concentration this paper, focusing on the

effects seen on DNA damage of fibroblasts, question the validity and the origin of the data published by Schwarz et al. (2008). Many of the arguments listed here, though, would be valid for the analysis of the micronuclei (MN), too (e.g., low standard deviations, low standard deviations at high MN numbers, low inter-individual differences, lack of random effects, etc.). For several reasons, the extremely low standard deviations are far too low for this kind of experiment in living cells with respect to the cells’ status in many independently performed experiments, methodological variations (e.g., variations in the SAR levels), random effects of cells counted,

and estimation learn more errors due to microscopical inspection and manual classification. The statistical analysis was done inappropriately and several calculation errors are irritating. As long as no convincing evidence is provided rebutting all arguments as listed here, the paper of Schwarz et al. must be treated with extreme caution. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pifithrin-alpha.html Open Access This article is distributed under Carbohydrate the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References Diem

E, Ivancsits S, Rüdiger HW (2002) Basal levels of DNA strand breaks in human leukocytes determined by comet assay. J Toxicol Environ Health A 65:641–648PubMedCrossRef Diem E, Schwarz C, Adlkofer F, Jahn O, Rüdiger H (2005) Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro. Mutat Res 583:178–183PubMed ICNIRP (1998) Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz). Health Phys 74:494–522 Ivancsits S, Pilger A, Diem E, Jahn O, Rüdiger HW (2005) Cell type-specific genotoxic effects of intermittent extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Mutat Res 583:184–188PubMed Oberto G, Rolfo K, Yu P, Carbonatto M, Peano S, Kuster N, Ebert S, Tofani S (2007) Carcinogenicity study of 217 Hz pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields in Pim1 transgenic mice. Radiat Res 168:316–326PubMedCrossRef Repacholi MH, Basten A, Gebski V, Noonan D, Finnie J, Harris AW (1997) Lymphomas in E mu-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHZ electromagnetic fields.

# Interestingly, another early Greek study of 100 gastric cancer pa

Interestingly, another early Greek study of 100 gastric cancer patients suggested that only the VEGF -634CC/CG genotypes were associated with a decreased (poorer survival) 10-year survival, compared with the GG genotype [35]. Our data on 167 gastric cancer patients LCZ696 indicated

that VEGF -634CC/CG carriers indeed had a poor 1-year survival than those with the VEGF -634 GG genotype. Amano et al. [37] also reported that no significant association was observed between the frequencies of the VEGF -460T>C, +405G>C, and 936C>T genotypes and 3-year disease-free survival of endometrial carcinoma patients in a Japanese study of 105 endometrial carcinoma patients. Because all these studies, including ours, have been relatively small, there was limited ability to perform the more powerful haplotype-based analysis that the analysis of a single allele or locus effect [34]. This is the first report,

to our knowledge, involving TGFB1 and VEGF polymorphisms and survival in gastric cancer patients mainly consisting of a Caucasian population; however, there were some limitations to the present study. Although we tried to collect recurrence data on GDC-0941 order these patients, we could not investigate this end-point due to the lack of a pre-defined follow-up plan. A second limitation was the fact that we only included three common TGFB1 SNPs and three VEGF SNPs. It is possible that some other important SNPs were missed or that the observed associations may be due to other polymorphisms in LD with the SNPs we studied. Also, no data on serum/plasma protein levels were available for the genotype-phenotype correlation analysis, because only DNA samples were available from these patients. There are other genes in addition to TGFB1 and VEGF that also play a role in cell growth and angiogenesis, representing a complex interplay of many activating and inhibitory factors [38]. Furthermore, Helicobacter

pylori infection, the presence or absence of which was not reported in the present study, is considered to be the cause of a progressive accumulation of genotypic changes in gastric cancer, which may lead to sporadic gastric cancer carcinogenesis [39]. Finally, the study size was too small to have a sufficient power to detect Branched chain aminotransferase small HRs. For example, our post-power calculation suggested that the sample size for an equal number (n = 55) of subjects in each genotype of each SNP, the power to detect an HR of 2 was <0.4, but >0.8 for a HR of 3.4 for a follow-up time of 5 years. Therefore, only the finding of HRs for 2-year survival of TGFB1 +915G>C would have a sufficient power, suggesting a much larger study would be needed to effectively test our hypothesis for CHIR-99021 in vitro effects of the overall survival. Conclusion In summary, we found that some polymorphisms TGFB1 and VEGF may be associated with 1- or 2-year survival rates of gastric cancer patients.

# , 1997), which were used as the dependent variables of the struct

, 1997), which were used as the dependent variables of the structural parameters. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the characteristics of both common and differentiating the analyzed compounds in terms of physicochemical and pharmacological effects. Experimental procedure Molecules The following compounds were selected for testing according to reference (Timmermans et al., 1984): α-adrenergic antagonists (AN): prazosin, phentolamine, dihydroergotamine, clozapine, corynanthine, azapetine, yohimbine, piperoxan,

tolazoline, mianserin, rauwolscine; MK-4827 research buy α-adrenergic agonists (AG): lofexidine, clonidine, naphazoline, tiamenidine, xylazine, tramazoline, xylometazoline, tetryzoline, methoxamine, phenylephrine, amidephrine, cirazoline, guanabenz, oxymetazoline, and eight compounds of an experimental click here structures, marked as symbols: DPI, Sgd 101/75, DP-5-ADTN, DP-7-ADTN, DP-5,6-ADTN, DP-6,7-ADTN, St 587, and M-7 (Fig. 1). Repotrectinib mouse Fig. 1 Structural formulas of compounds studied Biological activity data The study used the literature-quoted data of biological activity (Timmermans et al., 1984), are presented in Table 1S. The activity of α-adrenergic agonists—antihypertensive

activity was derived from the stimulation of central α2-adrenoceptors, pC25. The authors expressed data for pC25 in μmol/kg. The values of pC25 were available for lofexidine, clonidine, naphazoline, tiamenidine, xylazine, tramazoline, xylometazoline, and tetryzoline. For the α-adrenergic, antagonists were used: antagonistic activity against phenylephrine induced via α1-adrenoceptors vasoconstriction in rats, pA2 post (α1)—in vivo, antagonistic Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity of phenylephrine- or norepinephrine-induced stenosis of isolated rabbit pulmonary artery through α1-adrenereceptors post, pA2 post (α1)—in vitro. Activities expressed as pA2 were derived from the equation (Timmermans et al., 1984): $$\textpA_2 = \log \left( \textdose\;\textratio – 1 \right) – \log (\textantagonist\;\textconcentration)$$ (1) Chromatographic and lipophilicity data The values of the logarithm of partition coefficient, log P, were derived from the paper by Timmermans et al. (1984), and they are refer to compounds: lofexidine, clonidine, naphazoline,

tiamenidine, xylazine, tramazoline, xylometazoline, tetryzoline, cirazoline, St-587, and oxymetazoline (Table 2S). Chromatographic data were derived from the article by Nasal et al. (1997), and they are refer to compounds: lofexidine, clonidine, naphazoline, tiamenidine, xylometazoline, tetryzoline, cirazoline, oxymetazoline, prazosin, phentolamine, and tolazoline (Table 2S). These are the values of the logarithms of retention factors determined on Chiral AGP (log k AGP), immobilized artificial membranes IAM.PC.MG (log K IAM) and also the logarithm values of lipophilicity coefficients determined by the policratic method on Suplex pKb-100, pH 7.4 (log k w7.4Su), Spheri RP-18, pH 2.5 (log k w2.5Sp), and Aluspher RP select B, pH 7.3 (log k w7.3Al).

# (Here the term “”redundant”" refers to measurements that include

(Here the term “”redundant”" refers to measurements that include repeated sampling of the same peptide pair where each observed pair is an estimator of the relative change in protein abundance as in our

previous work [8, 10].) However, such statistical power is a mixed blessing in that one must then distinguish between real regulatory trends and minor random changes in the system. With so many redundant measurements, it becomes possible to detect very small abundance changes, of magnitude 10% or less, that may or may not have biological meaning [10]. Biological relevance was inferred in part by looking at the consistency of change observed across nutrient limitation comparisons and biological replicates (isotopic

flips), as well as the magnitude of the q-values for each abundance ratio and the criteria given below. Figure 1 Experimental check details design, sample handling and raw data acquisition. The bottom panel is a representation of a single reversed-phase elution during the final stage of the 2-D HPLC tandem MS analysis, total signal (reconstructed ion current, y-axis) versus time (x-axis), of M. maripaludis proteolytic fragments. Figure 2 Experimental design, computational. The effect of each nutrient limitation was assessed by comparing its see more proteome to that from the two other nutrient limitations, thus providing two control AZD8186 chemical structure conditions for each condition under study, green, H2-limitation; orange, click here nitrogen limitation; blue, phosphate limitation; light colors, light isotope (14N); dark colors, heavy isotope (15N). All ratios and statistical values are provided in Additional file 1. Protein abundance was considered to be affected by a particular nutrient limitation only if a significant difference (log2 ratio ≠ 0, q-value ≤ 0.01) was seen in all four comparisons described above, except in a few cases where manual inspection of the data suggested that one of the four determinations was an outlier, in which case it was disregarded. qRT-PCR

was used to assess mRNA abundance ratios for selected ORFs. These measurements confirmed the proteomic trends in each case tested, and also contributed data supporting the concept that proteomic abundance ratios generated using shotgun methods are compressed [8, 10], that is, they tend to underestimate the magnitude of the ratios, especially for highly expressed proteins or high ratios as shown in Tables 1 and 2 and discussed below. The observed compression is consistent with the dynamic range limitations associated with both shotgun proteomics (~102 to ~103) and mRNA microarray analysis, relative to qRT-PCR [10]. Table 1 Selected proteins with altered abundance under H2 limitation. ORF # Function Average log2 ratioa   Methanogenesis   MMP0820 FrcA, coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase 1.30 ± 0.56 MMP1382 FruA, coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase 0.77 ± 0.16 MMP1384 FruG, coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase 0.

# 49 to 2 47% (p = 0 002) and for segments II, III and IV from 1 24

49 to 2.47% (p = 0.002) and for segments II, III and IV from 1.24 to 1.52% (not significant) (Table S1, Additional file 1 and Fig. 2). Figure 2 Liver/body weight ratio (%) by segments before and after 3 weeks of aortoportal shunting of segments II, III and IV. The total liver weight increases over three weeks, the increase occurring in the non-LGX818 molecular weight shunted segments (I, V, VI, VII and VIII). Macroscopically, a sharp line of demarcation between the shunted and portally perfused sides of the liver was seen on the organ surface

(in vivo) upon relaparatomy at t = three weeks (Fig. 3a). This line corresponded to the transitional zone between segments IV (perfused by the shunt) and V/VIII (perfused by the portal vein). Furthermore, we observed that the liver lobuli had become larger on the portally perfused side. Figure 3 Macro-and microscopic changes after three weeks of shunting. a) Close-up photograph of the transition zone between shunted and portally perfused in-vivo

PI3K inhibitor Tariquidar liver after three weeks. The shunted side exhibits smaller condensed lobuli and a brighter (hyperoxygenized) color, while the portally perfused side exhibits larger lobuli, b) HE stained section of the transition zone showing more condensed lobuli on the shunted side and larger lobuli with dilated portal venules and central veins on the portally perfused side, c) sections from areas perfused by the portal vein and by the shunt showing an even distribution of Ki67 positive cells (control sections of sham buy Idelalisib and baseline livers all show a lower density of Ki67 positive cells). Microscopic changes On microscopic examination with HE staining (of biopsies taken from the chronic experiments), the lobuli on the shunted arterialized side exhibited condensed, smaller liver lobuli. However, reticulin staining revealed no increase in connective tissue deposition between portal triads. Furthermore, no apparent bile duct hyperplasia could be seen or overt signs of damage due to hyperperfusion. On the portally perfused side, the lobuli were expanded, the hepatocytes larger (increased cytoplasm), and the sinusoids, portal venules as well as the central veins were dilated. There were no differences in

the density of Ki67 positive cells or Phosphohistone H3 positive cells between the two sides (Fig. 3b, c). Control sections from sham animals and at baseline before shunting revealed uniformly less Ki67 positive cells in the liver lobuli, tentatively reflecting the pre-interventional normal state. Biochemical/cytokine analyses (acute experiments) There were no statistically significant changes in the concentration of ALAT, ASAT, GT, BIL or ALP at any time nor were there any differences in trends between shunt and sham groups. Serum IL-1 concentration increased slightly but remained statistically unchanged in the sham experiments. In the shunt experiments, IL-1 concentration reached a peak value (63 ± 93 pmol/l) at t = 4 hours after shunt opening (p = 0.009).

# Means were compared by a Student’s t-test Measurement of the lag

Selleck NVP-BSK805 receives funding from the Scottish Government Rural and Environment Research and Analysis Directorate (RERAD). LCC was in receipt of a Wellcome Travelling Fellowship. We thank David Brown and Maureen Annand for their technical help and expertise. MRGM received support from learn more the Marie Curie Training Site, ‘Anaerobe’; we thank Jamie Newbold and Estelle Devillard for their help and advice. MRGM was also supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal, with a PhD grant (SFRH/BD/6976/2001). References 1. Banks A, Hilditch TP: The glyceride structure of beef tallows. Biochem J 1931, 25:1168–1182.PubMed 2.

Menotti A, Kromhout D, Blackburn H, Fidanza F, Buzina R, Nissinen A: Food intake patterns and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: cross-cultural correlations in the Seven Countries Study. The Seven Countries Study Research Group. Eur J Epidemiol 1999, 15:507–515.PubMedCrossRef 3. Shorland FB, Weenink RO, Johns AT: Effect of the rumen on dietary fat. Nature, Lond 1955, 175:1129–1130.CrossRef 4. Viviani R: Metabolism of long-chain fatty acids in the rumen. Adv Lipid Res 1970, 8:267–346.PubMed 5. Scollan ND, Choi NJ, Kurt E, Fisher AV, Enser M, Wood JD: Manipulating the fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue in beef cattle. Br J Nutr 2001, 85:115–124.PubMedCrossRef 6. Kritchevsky EGFR inhibitor D: Antimutagenic and some other effects of conjugated linoleic acid. Br J Nutr 2000, 83:459–465.PubMed 7. Whigham LD, Cook ME, Atkinson RL:

Conjugated linoleic acid: implications for human health. Pharmacol Res 2000, 42:503–510.PubMedCrossRef 8. Jenkins TC: Regulation of lipid metabolism in the rumen. J Nutr 1994, 124:1372S-1376S.PubMed 9. Offer NW, Marsden M, Phipps RH: Effect of oil supplementation of a diet containing a high concentration of starch on levels of trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in bovine milk. Anim Sci 2001, 73:533–540. 10. Shingfield KJ, Ahvenjarvi S, Toivonen V, Arola A, Nurmela KVV, Huhtanen P, Griinari JM: Effect of dietary fish oil on biohydrogenation of fatty acids and milk fatty acid content in cows. Anim Sci 2003, 77:165–179. 11. Wąsowska I, Maia M, Niedźwiedzka KM, Czauderna M, Ramalho-Ribeiro JMC, Devillard E, Shingfield KJ, Wallace RJ: Influence of fish oil on ruminal biohydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids. Br J Nutr 2006, 95:1199–1211.PubMedCrossRef 12. Polan CE, McNeill JJ, Tove SB: Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by rumen bacteria. J Bacteriol 1964, 88:1056–1064.