11 Depending on the individual, psychiatric symptoms may be manif

11 Depending on the individual, psychiatric symptoms may be manifestations of intoxication and withdrawal, or be precursors for the development of selleck kinase inhibitor alcohol abuse.71,72 Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders, as well as alcohol dependence, are based on a range of symptoms, which potentially reflect distinct etiologies. There is substantial evidence indicating that most psychiatric disorders, similar to alcohol dependence, are complex disorders that have a substantial genetic component. It is likely that certain genetic components involved Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the susceptibility to psychiatric disorders are also likely to contribute to the

development of alcoholism. A prospective study of 11 -year-old children found three traits related to different dimensions on a personality questionnaire – specifically high novelty-seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence – were predictive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of later alcohol abuse.73 Furthermore,

certain genetic variants have been found to be associated with alcoholism as well as certain psychiatric disorders.52,74 Several studies of the genetics of psychopathology have identified common genes that may be associated with a variety of disordered behaviors. For example, the D4 dopamine receptor gene has been Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical linked to attention deficit-hyper-activity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and alcohol craving.64 Likewise, a polymorphism of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5′HTLPR, locus ID SLC6A4) has been associated with alcohol dependence,75,76 suicide attempts,77 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical anxiety symptoms,78 and major depressive disorder.79 These results

however, are mixed, and several negative findings question the replicability of the positive findings. Such investigations however, raise an important issue regarding the specificity of endophenotypes for alcoholism, given that a series of common genes may be associated with a host of psychopathological behaviors. It is possible that common factors may confer risk for several psychopathologies. For instance, personality factors, such as impulsivity and sensation/novelty-seeking, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical may also represent a common index of vulnerability to various psychopathologies. The hypothesis that common factors may confer risk or protection to more than one form of psychopathology led investigators to refine the endophenotypes such that they become better defined and possibly more psychopathology-specific. However, one should not cling Batimastat thoughtlessly to current mental disease classifications when data regarding endophenotypes may be suggesting new relationships between causal factors and disease manifestations. Biochemical traits Monoamine oxidase Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of a number of neurotransmitters in the brain and peripheral tissues.80,81 Two MAO enzymes, type A and B, were discovered and characterized on the basis of their substrate selectivity and inhibitor sensitivity.

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