2009) despite the window of occurrence of this effect is rather l

2009) despite the window of occurrence of this effect is rather limited by kinetic www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD1480.html and magnetic parameters (Jeschke and Matysik 2003; Daviso et al. 2008). Initially, photo-CIDNP MAS NMR experiments were performed on isolated RCs. Later, it became evident that the strong enhancement effect also allows for investigations directly on cells (Prakash et al. 2006) or photosynthetic membranes (Roy et al. 2008). In the growing list of natural RCs proven to show the solid-state photo-CIDNP

effect, RCs of cyanobacteria (blue algae) remained an open question. Cyanobacteria are model microorganisms for the study of plant photosynthesis having a photosynthetic apparatus very similar to the one found in plants. In particular, Bucladesine cyanobacterium Synechocystis is of interest, which can grow both autotrophically or heterotrophically in the absence of light and is easily transformed by exogenous DNA. Here, we present photo-CIDNP 13C MAS NMR data obtained directly from whole cells of cyanobacterium Synechocystis. Materials and methods Strains and culture conditions Wild-type cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 strain was kindly provided by A.H.M. de Wit Obeticholic chemical structure of the Biophysics group of Leiden University. Cultures were grown at 25°C in standard BG-11 medium (Allen 1968)

and illuminated by fluorescent white lamps giving a total intensity of 50 μE m−2 s−1. Cultures were bubbled with 5% CO2-enriched air to promote growth. Selective isotope enrichment of chlorophyll (Chl) in Synechocystis was done by growing the cyanobacterium in BG-11 medium supplemented with [4-13C]-δ-aminolevulinic acid ([4-13C]-ALA)

purchased from Cambridge Isotope Laboratories (99% 13C-enriched) to a final concentration of 53 mM. Determination of the 13C incorporation Chl a was purified from cells grown in [4-13C]-ALA-supplemented BG-11 medium (labeled sample) and from unlabeled cells (reference sample), according to the following procedure: cells were harvested by centrifugation for 10 min at 13.2 krpm. The cell pellet was resuspended in 1 ml methanol, shaken and centrifuged for 5 min at 2 krpm after which the green supernatant was collected. This procedure was repeated until the pellet showed a white-bluish color. The solvent was evaporated Urease under nitrogen (low light conditions were kept for the entire purification procedure) and the obtained pigments resuspended in 2,500 μl running solution, 70:30 (v/v) petroleum ether/acetone. This was loaded on a column filled with silica gel (particle size 40–63 μm, pore diameter ~60 Å) and washed with running solution. Fractions containing pure Chl a were identified using a Shimadzu UV–visible spectrophotometer, combined, dried under nitrogen and stored at −20°C. LC-MS Mass spectra were measured on a LTQ–FT hybrid mass spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Waltham, MA, USA). Spectra were measured in ESI mode, with a source temperature of 200°C, source voltage of 3.8 kV and tube lens voltage 150 V.

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