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“Ole e 9 is an olive pollen allergen b

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“Ole e 9 is an olive pollen allergen belonging to group 2 of pathogenesis-related proteins. The protein is composed of two immunological independent domains: an N-terminal domain (NtD) with 1,3-beta-glucanase activity, and a C-terminal domain (CtD) that binds 1,3-beta-glucans. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of CtD-Ole e 9 (101 amino acids), which consists of two parallel alpha-helices

forming an angle of similar to 55 degrees, a small antiparallel beta-sheet with two short strands, and a 3-10 helix turn, all connected by long coil segments, resembling a novel type of folding among allergens. Two regions surrounded by aromatic residues (F49, Y60, F96, Y91 and Y31, H68, Y65, F78) have been localized on the protein surface, and a role for sugar binding is suggested. The epitope mapping of CtD-Ole e 9 shows that B-cell epitopes find more are mainly located on loops, although

some of them are contained in secondary structural elements. Interestingly, the IgG and IgE epitopes are contiguous or overlapped, rather than coincident. The three-dimensional structure of CtD-Ole e 9 might help to understand the underlying mechanism of its biochemical function and to determine possible structure-allergenicity relationships.”
“Forkhead transcription factors have a ‘winged helix’ domain and regulate processes that range from cell longevity to cell death. Of the mammalian forkhead family members in the O class, FoxO1, FoxO3a and FoxO4 can fill a crucial void for the treatment of disorders that include aging,

cancer, diabetes, infertility, neurodegeneration eFT-508 cell line and immune system dysfunction. Yet, observations that forkhead family members also can compromise clinical utility have fueled controversy and highlight the necessity to further outline the integrated cellular pathways governed by these transcription factors. Here we discuss recent advances that have elucidated the unique cellular pathways and clinical potential of targeting FoxO proteins to develop novel therapeutic strategies and avert potential pitfalls that might be closely intertwined with its benefits for patient care.”
“This review addresses the effects of fatiguing general muscular Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor exercise (involving the whole body) and fatiguing local muscular exercise (involving a particular muscular group) on postural control. Short and intensive general exercise increases postural sway when the energy expenditure induced exceeds the lactate accumulation threshold. Exhaustive local exercise affects postural control when it generates a strength loss at least 25-30% of maximal voluntary contraction. Non-intensive general and local exercises can also disturb postural control when the exercise is prolonged. Both general and local exercises contribute to altering the effectiveness of sensory inputs and motor output of postural control.

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