Dose-related dapagliflozin systemic exposures were observed at do

Dose-related dapagliflozin systemic exposures were observed at doses >= 0.1 mg and glucosuria

was observed at doses >= 0.3 mg and corroborated by UGD. The NOEL was P505-15 mw therefore 0.1 mg for glucosuria. For setting the new OEL, no UFs were required. Dividing the POD by 10 m(3) (the volume of air an adult inhales in a workday), the resulting OEL was 0.01 mg/m(3). In conclusion, low-dose clinical pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data can allow the OEL to be adjusted to the highest safe level. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Accurate estimates of the incidence and prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are needed to inform public health policies. In Norway, where both MRSA infection and carriage are notifiable conditions, the reported incidence of MRSA is slowly increasing. However, the proportion of MRSA in relation to all S. aureus isolates is unknown, making it difficult to determine if the rising incidence is real or an artifact of an increasing number of tests performed.\n\nAim: To characterize recent trends in MRSA infections and obtain a more complete understanding of the MRSA level in Norway.\n\nMethods: All reported cases of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from Oslo County (1997-2010)

and Health Region East (2008-2008), representing approximately 11% and 36% of the Norwegian population, respectively, were analyzed using a stochastic time series analysis to characterize trends.\n\nResults: In Oslo County, the proportion of methicillin-resistant cases increased from 0.73% to 3.78% during the study period and was well modeled by an exponential growth with a doubling constant of 5.7 years (95% CI 4.5-7.4 years). In Health Region East, the proportion of MRSA cases increased from 0.4% to 2.1% from 2002 to 2008, with a best-fitting linear increase of 0.26% (95% CI 0.21-0.30%) per year. In both cases, the choice of a linear or exponential model for the time trend produced only marginally different model fits. We found no significant changes due to revised national MRSA guidelines published in June 2009. Significant variations

WZB117 research buy in the increasing time trend were observed in the five hospitals within the region. The yearly reported incidence of MSSA was relatively stable in both study areas although we found seasonal patterns with peaks in August.\n\nConclusion: The level of MRSA is increasing in Norway, and the proportion of methicillin resistance in all S. aureus isolates are higher than the reported proportion of MRSA in invasive infections.”
“P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is the most frequently proposed factor for multi-drug resistance. It is traditionally measured using antibody-based methods. While these techniques can provide relative quantification values for P-gp levels, the important information that is usually missing is its amount in the biological system.

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