g roadway configuration, traffic control data, weather condition

g. roadway configuration, traffic control data, weather conditions; the vehicle, e.g. type and model, engine size; and people involved in the crash, e.g. gender, age, type of licence and so on. In the following the main phases of the study are outlined.

They are also shown in Figure 4. Figure 4 Flow chart of phases and data of the study. On-site investigation The team collects more detailed information, such as skid marks, debris, deposit of liquids, point of rest of the vehicle, line of sight of each vehicle’s driver/rider or people involved in a crash, in order Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to substantiate the exact point of impact. Vehicles examination Each chemical structure vehicle involved in the accident is carefully examined by the In-SAFE team. All damage (direct or indirect) or contact points are photographed (Figure 5). Figure 5 On scene and vehicle damage photography documentation. Exterior parts The damage profile is quantified measuring the damage width. The latter is subdivided in six parts (C1-C6), where the dimension of the damage is quantified (CRASH3 method) [22,23]. In Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical order to describe the nature and the location of the direct contact on the vehicle in car and van accidents the Collision Deformation Classification (CDC) [24] is used. For accidents involving medium and heavy trucks, and articulated

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical combinations, the Track Deformation Classification (TDC) [25] is used. The Wraps Around Distance (WAD) measurement for determination of the pedestrian or cyclist interaction with the vehicle is also acquired. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Finally, for the PTW, the wheelbase shortening is collected. Interior parts Vehicle interiors are thoroughly investigated for evidence of occupant contacts, and to quantify the intrusions. These data are then stored using the Passenger Compartment Classification (PCC) developed by Standardization of Accident and Injury Registration Systems (STAIRS) project [26]. Special attention is given to the usage of the seatbelt, activation of the pretensioner, and airbag activation (Figure 6). Figure 6 Interior vehicle photography documentation. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Accident reconstruction methodologies From the previously collected data,

the accident Tryptophan synthase is reconstructed to evaluate the accident dynamics and the main physical parameters concerning the crash phase, as well as pre-crash phase manoeuvres, such as avoidance actions. The post-crash velocity of each vehicle involved in a crash is evaluated by means of the analysis of the post-crash motion. The deformation energy and the velocity variation (ΔV) are estimated through Crash3 method [27]. The impact velocity of each vehicle is assessed by applying the principles of energy balance and the momentum analysis. By the use of crash simulation software (PC-Crash 8.3 and Virtual CRASH 2.2) all the previous data are verified and validated, and other parameters, such as the PDOF and the impact angle between the vehicles, are also evaluated.

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