High levels of performance and durability, in association with cost-effective stack and system components are the key points. To reach such goals, a low-weight stack has been designed, keeping the advantages of the high performing and robust stack previously validated in terms of performance, durability, and cyclability , but aiming at reducing the cost by the use of thin interconnects. This low-weight stack has
demonstrated at the scale of a 3-cell stack a good performance of -1.0Acm(-2) at 1.3V at 800 RG-7388 degrees C. Before performing the durability test, preliminary studies at the cell level have been carried out to highlight the effect of two major operating parameters that are the current density and the steam conversion (SC) ratio, those studies being carried out at one temperature, 800 degrees C. Based on these results, optimized operating parameters have been defined to perform the durability test on the stack, that is -0.5Acm(-2) and a SC ratio of 25%. Degradation rates around 3-4% 1,000h(-1) have been measured. The thermal cyclability of this stack has also been demonstrated with one thermal cycle. Therefore
it can be concluded that these results make HTSE technology getting closer to the objectives of performance, durability, thermal cyclability, and cost.”
“Introduction. Dynamic processes in cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) are typically described using cohort simulations, which can be implemented as Markov models, or alternatively using systems of ordinary differential equations GSK923295 purchase (ODEs). In the field of CEA, simple and potentially inaccurate single-step algorithms are commonly used for solving ODEs,
which can potentially induce bias, especially if an incorrect step size is used. The aims of this project were 1) to implement and demonstrate the use of a modern and well-established hybrid linear multistep ODE solver algorithm (LSODA) in the context of CEA using the statistical scripting language R and 2) to quantify bias in outcome for a case example CEA as generated by a commonly used single-step ODE solver algorithm. Methods. A previously published CEA comparing the adjuvant breast cancer therapies anastrozole and tamoxifen was used as a case example to implement the computational framework. A commonly used single-step algorithm check details was compared with the proposed multistep algorithm to quantify bias in the single-step method. Results. A framework implementing the multistep ODE solver LSODA was successfully developed. When a single-step ODE solver with step size of 1 year was used, incremental life-years gained was underestimated by 0.016 years (5.6% relative error, RE) and 158 pound (6.8% RE) compared with the multistep method. Conclusion. The framework was found suitable for the conduct of CEAs. We demonstrated how the use of single-step algorithms with insufficiently small step sizes causes unnecessary bias in outcomes measures of CEAs.