In our case the sensitivity in crossings did not differ from self pollination, probably because the methylation levels had already accumulated past the silencing threshold in flowering T2 plants. Similar as reported for N. tabacum hybrids, we found no evidence of a specifically maternal or paternal contribution to the inactivation Pacritinib process. Further monitoring of the crosses could be still interesting if after ongoing propagation, demethyla tion might occur, as has been seen in other backcrosses with wild type plants. Successive increase of de novo methylation during development Usually, epigenetic modifications were considered to be stable in somatic cells and during normal plant Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries develop ment. Most substantial Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries epigenetic changes have been reported during gamete formation and embryogen esis in plants.
Progressive demethylation events Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries that could be observed in endosperm tissue were interpreted as a way to reinforce transposon methylation in the embryo. Since transgene silencing has been often described as a sudden switch of the pheno type between plant generations, a similar mechanism might have been responsible for enhancing transgene methylation during the reproductive phase. Our obser vation of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries a high variability in rosette stage plants lead to the hypothesis that epigenetic changes might start already early during vegetative growth and increase with differ ent velocities amongst individual plants. Other studies suggested a somatic inactivation as well, pointing to evidence of diminishing expression of a reporter gene during development.
However, in these stud ies, methylation levels were not analyzed in different Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries stages of plant development. Our methylation kinetic showed a strong somatic increase during growth, but nearly no changes between the generations, resembling a continuous inheritance of the methylation status to the offspring. The recent model of a methyla tion reinforcement during the reproductive stage, as seen for transposons, seems to be not applicable to the de novo methylation of transgenes. Successive analysis of methylation changes have largely been restricted to tissue cultures or micropropagated plants. In a long term callus cultures of pearl mil let, a gradual decrease in GUS ac tivity could be associated with increased methylation levels, KPT-330 IC50 18 month after transformation. In potato, a successive increase of gene silencing could be shown during a 5 year period of vegetative propagation. In contrast, we found within only 15 days of normal plant development an absolute increase of 50% in total CG methylation. Developmental methylation increases reported in flax and Arabidopsis were only observed after treat ment with DNA demethylating agents and therefore more a remethylation to the former status.