It has been estimated that more than 90% of all non-synonymous mu

It has been estimated that more than 90% of all non-BIIB057 cell line synonymous mutations in the DENV genome lack any evidence of benefit for the organism and can be considered deleterious [36]. In that study, Holmes found that non-synonymous variations are abundant in DENV populations within individual humans, whereas the frequency of non-synonymous mutations in inter-host comparisons is very low. Thus, the loss of long-term non-synonymous variation is the signature of extensive purifying selection

in the DENV genome. We asked whether fixation of specific synonymous codons between American and Asian DENV is associated with selection for codon optimization within serotypes. To determine that, the synonymous mutations that resulted in generation of preferred and non-preferred codons were counted in both populations, and our results show that synonymous A-1155463 clinical trial substitutions between Asian and American DENV isolates are significantly associated with codon preferences or non-preferences. AZD5363 nmr One of the significant observations from this study is that several codons undergo fixed substitutions (Additional file 2) at the 3rd position (mostly A to G changes)

between Asian and American DENV isolates. These silent substitutions show extensive changes in the RSCU value of the codons. In many cases, the RSCU is less than 0.5 in one geographic population but greater than 2 in the other geographic population, suggesting that they are used in a very biased

Histamine H2 receptor manner between Asian or American DENV isolates. Codon usage bias is an important evolutionary feature of the DENV genome, where it has been suggested that closely related isolates have more similar codon usage patterns than more distantly related isolates [37]. The same study [37] further showed that codon bias can be used as an indicator of serotype differentiation in DENV. In this context, our results suggest that fixed mutations at silent positions of codons contribute to biased usage of codons between geographical samples of dengue virus. This further indicates that substitutions, even if they are silent, can play an important role in geographical diversity in the virus. Whether fixation of such sites is associated with evolutionary benefit to the virus is yet to be investigated, although it is possible that codon bias can be beneficial [38]. The relevance of codon bias of DENV is also thought to a co-evolutionary relationship with the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti[39]. In this context, it has been shown that codon bias of genes is the most influential factor among other intrinsic features of mosquito genes to have a significant effect on transcriptional responsiveness to infection by DENV [40]. Thus, it seems likely that fixed changes between Asian and American DENV isolates pertaining to differential usage of synonymous codons may have a role in molecular interaction with the mosquito genotypes prevailing in the regions [41–43].

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