Most of the sounds were simple and repetitive “beeps”; in between

Most of the selleck inhibitor sounds were simple and repetitive “beeps”; in between the standard sounds, novel sounds were included. We also controlled for the order of the presentation of the sounds with two separate experiments. In the first, the sounds were presented together (with a slight delay) with the words. In the second, they were presented before, so that any beneficial effect of novel sounds would occur during Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the whole presentation of the word. We hypothesized that if novelty affects encoding, words presented with novel sounds would also be remembered better than words that are presented with standard sounds. In summary, our study differed from previous ones

by looking at the novelty N2 as well as the more commonly studied

novelty P3a, by using cued recall and recognition instead of free recall as our measure of memory, and by looking at the effect of novelty co-occurring with to-be studied words, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical but not integral to them. Methods EEG recordings: general procedure EEG was recorded from 128 active scalp locations using the BioSemi Active2 system (Biosemi, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Amsterdam, the Netherlands). Electrodes were placed according to the radial ABC system of BioSemi. Vertical and horizontal eye movements (VEOG and HEOG) were recorded, the latter using electrodes located on the outer canthus of each eye, and the former using electrodes placed below and above the right eye. Reference electrodes were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical located in the right and left mastoid bones. The sampling rate was set to 512 Hz. EEG data analysis was performed using EEGlab (Delorme and Makeig 2004) and custom-written

Matlab scripts. EEG data were re-referenced to the average of the signal from the two mastoid bones electrodes, resampled to 500 Hz, and digitally filtered (0.05–40 Hz; finite impulse least-square kernel with 6-dB transition of 0.01 Hz for low-pass filter and 6-dB transition of 2 Hz for high-pass filter). The data were epoched for the different conditions (novel Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical font, standard font, novel sound, and standard sound). Epochs included 500 msec before and 1500 msec after the stimulus. The baseline was defined as the 100 msec preceding the stimulus. An independent components analysis (ICA) was performed on the epoched data including all conditions. Phosphoprotein phosphatase Independent components accounting for blink artifacts were identified and removed from the data (Jung et al. 2000a,b; Delorme et al. 2007). The data reported are, therefore, pertaining to event-related potentials. The decision about time windows of interest and electrode locations for the analysis was based on grand average waveforms for each condition. Participants Participants were volunteers recruited from the student population of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. All participants gave informed consent and received either money (€9 per hour) or credits for participation. None of the participants reported any psychiatric or neurological disorders.

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