Proliferation was assessed in triplicate by FACS analysis as the

Proliferation was assessed in triplicate by FACS analysis as the total percentage of labeled CD4+Thy1.2+ naïve cells undergoing at least one round of division. Diabetogenic NOD splenocytes (2.5×106) were suspended in PBS and injected i.p. into 8-wk-old NOD.scid male mice alone or in combination MK0683 price with FACS-sorted CD4+CD25+ T cells (1×105) isolated from the PaLN of NOD or NOD.B6Idd3 mice. Mice were monitored bi-weekly post transfer for diabetes. Using the forward primer 5′-gaagcttcaggcatgtacagcatgcagctc-3′ that includes a HindIII restriction site and

the reverse primer 5′-gtcgactagttattgagggcttgttgagat-3′ that contains an EcoRV restriction site, the Il2 gene was PCR amplified with PFU Turbo (Promega) from mRNA (Qiagen) of ConA- (Sigma-Aldrich) stimulated NOD lymphocytes. Amplicons were subcloned into the topo-TA vector (Invitrogen) and sequenced. Full-length cDNA encoding Il2 was subcloned into an AAV-Tet-on vector plasmid (kindly provided by Dr. Sihong Song) using SalI and EcoRV sites. Transgene expression was verified by click here measuring via ELISA IL-2 secretion by HEK 293 cells transfected

with AAV-Tet-on-IL-2 plasmid DNA. AAV virus production was previously described 51. Briefly, packaged AAV serotype 1 (AAV1) virus was prepared by transfecting 293 cells via calcium phosphate with the adeno helper encoding plasmid (pXX6-80), AAV1 encoding plasmid (pXR-1), and the Tet-on-IL-2 constructs (described above). Nuclear fractions were harvested and virus purified with an iodixonal Casein kinase 1 (Sigma-Aldrich) gradient. The virus- containing fractions and titer were determined by Southern dot blot. NOD female mice were vaccinated with 5×1010 viral particles of AAV-Tet-on-IL-2 virus serotype 1 (AAV-Tet-IL-2) in contra-lateral, hind limb muscles using an insulin syringe. After injection, mice were fed chow containing 200 mg/kg doxycycline (BioServ) for 2 wk. Pancreases

were harvested and fixed with formalin for 24 h. Serial sections 90 μm apart were prepared and stained with H&E. More than 100 islets were scored per group. We thank Dr. Edward Leiter (The Jackson Laboratory) for generously providing the NOD.B6Idd3 mice. This work was supported by funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (R01AI058014) (R. T.). K. S. G, M. J., and A. G. were supported by a NIH training grant (5T32 AI07273). B. W. was supported by an American Diabetes Association Career Development Award (1-04-CD-09). Conflict of interest: The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. Detailed facts of importance to specialist readers are published as ”Supporting Information”. Such documents are peer-reviewed, but not copy-edited or typeset. They are made available as submitted by the authors.

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