Samples were then transported back to the laboratory at 4°C. One hundred milliliters of sterile water were added to the bags, and samples were agitated for 1 minute by hand and then sonicated for 2 minutes. The microfloral wash was then transferred to polypropylene tubes and centrifuged at 30,000 × g overnight at 4°C. The GSK2245840 pellet was then transferred to a microcentrifuge tube and stored
at -80°C until DNA extraction was performed. Three liters of groundwater and 50 ml of surface water collected on August 31 2009 were filtered through 0.45 μm Fisherbrand® filters (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA). Filters were aseptically divided into four microcentrifuge tubes and stored at 80°C. DNA extraction from filters and pellets was performed using the Promega Wizard DNA extraction kit (Promega, Madison, WI) in 2008, and the Zymo Research fungal/bacterial DNA extraction kit (Zymo Research, Rabusertib ic50 Orange, CA) in 2009. Cloning and Sanger sequencing (2008) PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene was performed using
forward primer GM5F 5′-CCTACGGGAGGCAGCAG-3′  and reverse primer 907R 5′-CCCCGTCAATTCCTTTGAGTTT-3′ , designed to amplify a 588 base pair long region including the variable region V3. PCR reactions were performed using TaKaRa premix (TaKaRa Shuzo Co., Shiga, Japan) in a 50 μl total volume (1 μl genomic DNA as template, 1 μl each primer, 22 μl sterile water and 25 μl TaKaRa premix). PCRs used a denaturation step at 98°C for 5 minutes, followed by 30 cycles of 94°C for 1 minute, 55°C for 1 minute, 72°C for 1 minute, www.selleckchem.com/products/Y-27632.html with a final extension step at 72°C for 5 minutes. PCR fragments were cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector (Promega) according to manufacturer’s instructions. Bacterial colonies were frozen in 100 μl aliquots of Luria broth (Miller) solution with 10% glycerol in 96-well plates and shipped on dry ice to Agencourt Genomic Services, Beverly, MA, for Sanger sequencing. 454 sequencing (2009) Ceramide glucosyltransferase PCR amplification of the 16S
rRNA bacterial gene was performed using forward primer Bact-8F (AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG)  and reverse primer UNI518R (ATTACCGCGGCTGCTGG) , designed to amplify a 527 base pair long region including variable regions V1, V2 and V3. The forward primer included the fusion primer A (CGTATCGCCTCCCTCGCGCCATCAG) in its 5′ end. The reverse primer included the fusion primer B (CTATGCGCCTTGCCAGCCCGCTCAG) in its 5′ end, followed by sample specific 10 bp barcodes. Standard PCRs were performed using AmpliTaq Gold LD™ (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) in a 50 μl total volume (1 μl genomic DNA as template, 1 μM each primer, 200 μM each dNTP, 2 mM MgCl2, 0.60 units AmpliTaq Gold LD, 10 × buffer provided by manufacturer). PCRs used a denaturation step at 95°C for 5 min, followed by 30 cycles of 95°C 1 min, 55°C 1 min, 72°C 1 min, with a final extension step at 72°C for 5 min. Four independent PCR amplifications were performed for each sample.