The aim of the present study was to determine the role of

The aim of the present study was to determine the role of JPH203 autophagy, the cellular process of recycling damaged biomolecules, in endothelial dysfunction with ageing. In older humans, expression of autophagy markers in arterial endothelial cells was impaired by similar to 50% (P < 0.05) and was associated with an similar to 30% (P < 0.05) reduction in arterial endothelium-dependent dilatation (EDD). Similarly, in C57BL/6 control mice ageing was associated with an similar to 40% decrease (P < 0.05) in arterial markers of autophagy and an similar to 25% reduction (P < 0.05) in EDD. In both humans and mice, impaired EDD was mediated

by reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and was associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation (P < 0.05). In old mice, treatment with the autophagy-enhancing agent trehalose restored expression of autophagy markers, Bafilomycin A1 mouse rescued NO-mediated EDD by reducing oxidative stress, and normalized inflammatory cytokine expression. In cultured endothelial cells, inhibition of autophagy increased oxidative stress and reduced NO production, whereas trehalose enhanced NO production via an autophagy-dependent mechanism. These results provide the first evidence that autophagy is impaired

with ageing in vascular tissues. Our findings also suggest that autophagy preserves arterial endothelial function by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation and increasing NO bioavailability. Autophagy-enhancing strategies may therefore have therapeutic efficacy for ameliorating age-associated arterial dysfunction and preventing CVD.”
“Objective: To identify,

appraise and synthesise the results of systematic reviews of the literature (SRLs) that examines the effectiveness of interventions to increase advance directive (AD) completion rate.\n\nMethods: Narrative review of the literature an overview of SRLs focused on interventions to improve patients’ AD completion rate.\n\nResults: Seven SRLs were located. A wide range of interventions was identified in order to determine their influence on the AD completion rate.\n\nConclusion: The most effective 3 method of increasing the use of ADs is the combination of informative material and repeated conversations over clinical visits. The use of passive informative material in isolation does not significantly increase AD completion rates. However, when interactive informative interventions are employed, the AD completion rate increases and the majority of the studies identify multiple sessions as the most effective method for direct interaction between patients and health care professionals.\n\nPractice implications: The progressive ageing of the population and the provision of quality care during the process of ageing and dying, have given rise to the Governments’ interest in developing moral autonomy and regulating tools as ADs. In order to put legislation into practice it is necessary to set up successful interventions to expand ADs use.

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