The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of
TNF-α (−308G/A), IL-2 (−330T/G), IL-4 (−589C/T) and in exon region of TGF-β1 (+869T/C) genes was assessed by ARMS & PCR-RFLP using specific primers in the above-mentioned subjects. The differences in allelic or genotypic frequencies of TNF-α (−308G/A) between patients, their HHC and HC were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). IL-2 (−330T/G) TG genotype was significantly different between patients, HHC compared to HC (P < 0.002, OR-1.997, 95%CI-1.260-3.168, P < 0.03, OR-1.602, 955CI-1.003-2.561).IL-4 (−589C/T) CC genotype was significantly different between patients and HC (P < 0.03, OR-1.791, 95%CI-1.009-3.189) as well as between HHC and Rapamycin HC at P < 0.0001, OR-2.56, 95%CI-1.448-4.545. In addition, the TGF-β 1 (+869T/C) TC genotype was significantly associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in patients when compared against HC(P < 0.0001, OR-3.416, 95%CI-2.063-5.670) and HHC (P < 0.0001, OR-2.357, 95%CI-1.439-3.868), respectively.MDR analysis indicated that TT genotype of TGF-β1 with TT and CT genotypes of IL-4 showed high risk
with GA, TT genotypes of TNF-α, IL-2, respectively. Our results suggest that IL-2 (-330T/G), IL-4 (-589 C/T) and TGF-β1 (+869T/C) gene polymorphisms may be associated with TB susceptibility. “
“We investigated the role of SIGNR1 in the recognition of Candida albicans and the subsequent cellular oxidative burst response. Soluble SIGNR1 (sSIGNR1) tetramer bound equally to zymosan and both heat-killed (HK) and live LY2606368 C. albicans in an EDTA-sensitive manner, whereas sDectin-1 tetramer predominantly bound to zymosan and HK-microbes in an EDTA-independent manner. In cellular response, enhanced oxidative burst was observed in RAW264.7 cells expressing SIGNR1 (RAW-SIGNR1) compared with RAW-control cells upon stimulation with HK-C. albicans and zymosan. This
Elongation factor 2 kinase response was independent of TLR2 and the cytosolic portion of SIGNR1 but dependent on the recognition by SIGNR1 via carbohydrate recognition domain. Antagonistic laminarin and anti-Dectin-1 mAb cooperatively reduced the response with mannan and anti-SIGNR1 mAb, respectively, although they had no effect by themselves. Moreover, oxidative response and bactericidal activity largely relied on Syk-mediated signaling. RAW-SIGNR1 cells not only captured microbes more efficiently but also showed higher responses than RAW-control cells. Similar enhanced responses were observed in SIGNR-1-expressing resident peritoneal Mϕ. Interestingly, Dectin-1 was recruited to the phagosomal membrane upon the stimulation and physically associated with SIGNR1. These results suggest that SIGNR1 plays a significant role in inducing oxidative response to C. albicans by Syk-dependent signaling, possibly through Dectin-1.