The cardiovascular effects of NHD, as assessed by transthoracic
echocardiography (TTE) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, have been click here a subject of recent interest. Chan et al.  first reported an improvement in left ventricular mass by TTE in an observational study of 28 patients on NHD over a mean follow-up of 3.4 years. A subsequent randomized controlled trial of 52 patients in Alberta also demonstrated a decrease in LV mass by CMR over a 6-month follow-up . However, a more recent study randomizing 87 patients to conventional hemodialysis vs. NHD did not demonstrate any difference in LV mass as assessed by CMR in NHD patients after 1 year . Little is known, however, about the effects of NHD on both atrial and ventricular remodeling as assessed by TTE and CMR in an incident NHD population… The primary objective of the study was to determine the effects of NHD on cardiovascular remodeling over a one-year follow-up using both TTE and CMR. Methods Study population All patients enrolled in the NHD training program at a single tertiary care center were asked to participate in the study from January 2009 to December 2011 inclusive. For inclusion into the training
Pexidartinib program, patients were required to be able to perform NHD, have a life expectancy greater than 12 months, and have no reliable expectation of receiving a kidney transplant within 12 months. The study protocol was approved by the University of Manitoba research ethics board GNE-0877 (REB protocol number H2008:279). Study protocol Upon enrollment into the NHD training program, patients underwent 6–10 weeks of one-on-one training with a nurse. The patients went on to perform daytime home hemodialysis for 1–4 weeks, followed by overnight extended hours hemodialysis. All patients had TTE and CMR studies performed at baseline and after 1 year of NHD. All cardiac imaging parameters were performed the day following an overnight
hemodialysis run when patients are closest to their prescribed dry weight. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected at baseline. Hematology and chemistry laboratory values were obtained monthly both pre- and post-dialysis. Parathyroid hormone and lipid profiles were measured every 3 months. Echocardiography Transthoracic echocardiography was performed using a standard echocardiography machine (GE Vivid 7, Milwaukee, WI, USA) at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Cardiac chamber dimensions and function were determined according to the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines . TransLY2835219 price mitral left ventricular (LV) filling velocities were measured at the tips of the mitral valve leaflets using the apical four-chamber view and pulsed-wave Doppler. Manual tracing of the transmitral LV filling signal was performed to obtain peak early (E) and late (A) transmitral velocities, E/A ratio, and E wave deceleration time.