The overall knowledge, attitudes and practices of the study parti

The overall knowledge, attitudes and practices of the study participants were assessed using the mean score of each outcome as a cut-off value. Having a score above the mean on each of the three target outcomes was equated with having a good level of knowledge, or having favorable attitude and good practices towards TB.\n\nResults: Nutlin-3 nmr Out of 422 study participants (58.5% males and 41.5% females) only 3.3% mentioned bacteria/germ as a cause

of pulmonary TB (PTB) and 9.9% mentioned cough for at least two weeks as the sign of TB. Taking the mean knowledge score as the cut-off value, 57.6% (95% CI: 52.7% to 62.3%) of the study participants had good level of knowledge about TB, 40.8% (95% CI: 36.0% to 45.6%) had favorable attitude towards TB and 45.9% (95% CI: 41.1% to 50.9%) had good practices. Female participants were less likely to have good level of knowledge [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.33, 95% CI, 0.21

to 0.51, p < 0.001], less likely to have favorable Selleck LB-100 attitude (AOR = 0.23, 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.37) and less likely to have good practices (AOR = 0.37, 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.57, p < 0.001) compared to male participants.\n\nConclusion: Majority of the study participants had no correct information about the causative agent of TB and the main symptom of PTB. Moreover, low level of overall knowledge, attitudes and practices about TB was associated with female participants. Hence, TB control strategy in the present study area should include community awareness raising component.”
“Objective The complex of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and cAMP is an important transcriptional

regulator of numerous genes in prokaryotes. The transport of mannitol through the phosphotransferase systems check details (PTS) is regulated by the CRP-cAMP complex. The aim of the study is to investigate how the CRP-cAMP complex acting on the mannitol PTS operon mtl of the Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype.\n\nMethods The crp mutant strain was generated by homologous recombination to assess the need of CRP to activate the mannitol PTS operon of V. cholerae El Tor. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and the reporter plasmid pBBRlux were used to confirm the role that the CRP-cAMP complex playing on the mannitol PTS operon mtl.\n\nResults In this study, we confirmed that CRP is strictly needed for the activation of the mtl operon. We further experimentally identified five CRP binding sites within the promoter region upstream of the mannitol PTS operon mtl of the Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype and found that these sites display different affinities for CRP and provide different contributions to the activation of the operon.\n\nConclusion The five binding sites collectively confer the strong activation of mannitol transfer by CRP in V. cholerae, indicating an elaborate and subtle CRP activation mechanism.

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