The stimulating electrode placement was consistent across all co

The stimulating electrode placement was consistent across all concentrations. Isoproterenol at the three higher concentrations had no significant effect on the fEPSP. The low-concentration β-adrenoceptor-elicited fEPSP LTD seen here did not require sustained intermediate frequency LTD stimulation as is typically needed to induce LTD. In vitro β-adrenoceptor LTD in the lateral perforant path has been shown to be Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical both β-adrenoceptor and NMDA-receptor dependent (Dahl and Sarvey 1989 1990).

It will be of interest to examine NMDA dependence of low concentration ISO-induced LTD. Effects of intrahippocampal ISO infusion on the perforant path-dentate gyrus population spike The lowest concentration of ISO produced a transient depression of the population spike. This did not temporally follow fEPSP LTD at the same ISO concentration and the two were not correlated.

Winson and Dahl (1985) found a depression of population spike amplitude with ISO iontophoresis, which did Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical not outlast the period of iontophoretic current. Their population spike depression effect was β-adrenoceptor receptor selective. With locus coeruleus electrical stimulation they observed spike potentiation and EPSP depression, although EPSPs had to be monitored in the dendritic layer to detect the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical EPSP change. The largest, and most enduring (>3 h) potentiation of population spike amplitude seen here occurred at an intermediate concentration of 10 μmol/L ISO. The highest concentration used did not produce long-term potentiation and even the transient potentiation seen was small. All higher concentrations

of ISO produced some degree of β-adrenoceptor-mediated population spike potentiation as has been reported in the majority of studies of noradrenergic modulation of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical perforant path input to dentate gyrus whether Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in vivo or in vitro. The long-lasting potentiation effects here increased over time things following infusion. Late developing kinetics for norepinephrine-induced long-term potentiation (NE-LTP) in dentate gyrus has been reported previously with LC activation (the Walling and Harley 2004; Reid and Harley 2010). The mechanism behind this gradually increasing potentiation profile is not known. That such long-term potentiation AV-951 is not simply a generalized disinhibition effect is demonstrated by the requirement that locus coeruleus activation must be paired with perforant path activation for its occurrence (Reid and Harley 2010). Transient disinhibition, however, is reliably associated with locus coeruleus activation (Brown et al. 2005). Increased EPSP-spike coupling In the dentate gyrus, frequency-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) frequently results in a leftward shift of the EPSP slope-population spike (E-S) relationship (Bliss and Lomo 1973; Kairiss et al. 1987). This leftward shift has also been found in NE-LTP, induced by endogenous NE release in awake rats (Walling and Harley 2004).

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