w) subcutaneously, bilateral injections of moxonidine
(0.5 nmol) or methysergide (4 mu g) into the LPBN increased 0.3 M NaCl intake (29.8 +/- 5.1 and 19.5 +/- 3.7 ml/2 h, respectively, versus vehicle: 8.3 +/- 1.4 ml/2 h) and water intake (17.9 +/- 3.7 and 23.3 +/- 2.8 ml/2 h, respectively, PF-573228 versus vehicle: 11.5 +/- 1.6 ml/2 h). Lesions of the CeA (5-18 days) abolished the increase in 0.3 M NaCl and water intake produced by bilateral injections of moxonidine (10.3 +/- 2.8 and 6.8 +/- 2.3 ml/2 h, respectively) and reduced the increase produced by methysergide (13.6 +/- 2.5 and 14.5 +/- 3.2 ml/2 h, respectively) into the LPBN. The present results show that the increase in water and 0.3 M NaCl intake produced by serotonergic blockade and alpha(2)-adrenergic activation in the LPBN depends on the integrity of the CeA, suggesting that facilitatory mechanisms present in the CeA are essential for the increase of water and hypertonic NaCl intake produced by the blockade of the inhibitory mechanisms of the LPBN. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The genome of measles virus (MV) is encapsidated by the nucleocapsid (N) protein and associates with RNA-dependent
RNA polymerase to form the ribonucleoprotein complex. The matrix (M) protein is believed to play an important role in MV assembly by linking the ribonucleoprotein complex with envelope glycoproteins. Analyses using a yeast two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitation in mammalian cells revealed that the M protein interacts with the N protein and that two leucine residues at the carboxyl terminus of the N protein (L523 and L524) selleck inhibitor are critical for the interaction. In MV minigenome reporter gene assays, the M protein inhibited viral RNA synthesis only when it was able to interact with the N protein. The N protein colocalized with the M protein at the plasma membrane when the proteins were coexpressed in plasmid-transfected or MV-infected cells. In contrast,
the N protein formed small dots in the perinuclear area when it was expressed without the M protein, or it was incapable of interacting with the M protein. Furthermore, a recombinant MV possessing a mutant N protein incapable see more of interacting with the M protein grew much less efficiently than the parental virus. Since the M protein has an intrinsic ability to associate with the plasma membrane, it may retain the ribonucleoprotein complex at the plasma membrane by binding to the N protein, thereby stopping viral RNA synthesis and promoting viral particle production. Consequently, our results indicate that the M protein regulates MV RNA synthesis and assembly via its interaction with the N protein.”
“A functional connection between theta rhythms, information processing, learning and memory formation is well documented by studies focusing on the impact of theta waves on motor activity, global context or phase coding in spatial learning.