Clearly, controlling the initial adhesion into a biofilm depends

Clearly, controlling the initial adhesion into a biofilm depends mainly on the surface properties. While several dental materials BTSA1 mw promote selective adherence during early dental biofilm formation [10, 11], other modified biomaterials may provide resistance to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation [12, 13]. Therefore, it is expected that diverse biofilms are developed on various surfaces. Previous studies have demonstrated that streptococci, including mutans streptococci, are

the predominant colonizing microorganisms of oral surfaces. S. mutans is considered to be a most important etiological agent of diseases associated with dental caries. On teeth, it is one of the species which form biofilm causing dissolution of enamel by

acid end-products resulting from carbohydrate metabolism [14–16]. In nature, acclimation of bacteria to any type of biofilm environment is probably associated with a change in gene expression [17–19]. However, in contrast to other areas, less is known about the gene expression of bacteria immobilized on different dental surfaces. It is compelling that adaptation of oral bacteria to the different types of dental surfaces may also be associated with different patterns of gene expression, especially those genes associated with biofilm regulation, formation and bacterial physiology. The aim of this study was to identify transcriptional Rapamycin datasheet modifications that accompany the formation of in vitro biofilms by S. mutans on a variety of dental surfaces. click here Methods The tested triclocarban surfaces Dental restorative

material – composite Filtek Z250 (60% zirconia/silica, average particle size 0.01-3.5 microns; BIS-GMA, UDMA and BIS-EMA resins (3 M Dental Products, St Paul, MN, USA)). Ti disks tested in this study were Ti alloy (TiAl(6)V(4)) disks (6 mm diameter) with machined type of surface modifications manufactured by Alpha-Bio implant company (Petach Tikva, Israel). Hydroxyapatite (HA) tablets were prepared by the following procedure: 340 mg of HA beads (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA) of particle size diameter 80 μm, surface area 40 m2/g, were pressed at a pressure of 8 tons for 20 sec by a single-punch machine (Erweka, Frankfurt, Germany). The punch diameter was 1.2 cm. Before every preparation of tablets the punch (all the surface and inside) was cleaned with ethanol (70%) and stearic acid (5%). Following the sterilization the Ti, HA, and the composite materials were placed into the 20-mm diameter and 15-mm deep polystyrene multidishes (NUNCLON-143982, Roskilde, Denmark); consequently, the polystyrene multidishes were used as a non-dental reference surface. Bacterial strains and culture conditions S. mutans UA159, a serotype c strain, was obtained from Robert Burne (University of Florida, Gainesville). The planktonic S.

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