Despite the lack of any biophysical mechanism which would be able

Despite the lack of any biophysical mechanism which would be able to explain such interactions, the results not only confirm the group’s previous findings, but they apparently extend them to another frequency range (UMTS, around 1,950 MHz) and to lower SAR levels which are well below internationally accepted exposure limits for the general public (ICNIRP 1998). The arguments given in SB-715992 concentration this paper, focusing on the

effects seen on DNA damage of fibroblasts, question the validity and the origin of the data published by Schwarz et al. (2008). Many of the arguments listed here, though, would be valid for the analysis of the micronuclei (MN), too (e.g., low standard deviations, low standard deviations at high MN numbers, low inter-individual differences, lack of random effects, etc.). For several reasons, the extremely low standard deviations are far too low for this kind of experiment in living cells with respect to the cells’ status in many independently performed experiments, methodological variations (e.g., variations in the SAR levels), random effects of cells counted,

and estimation learn more errors due to microscopical inspection and manual classification. The statistical analysis was done inappropriately and several calculation errors are irritating. As long as no convincing evidence is provided rebutting all arguments as listed here, the paper of Schwarz et al. must be treated with extreme caution. Open Access This article is distributed under Carbohydrate the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References Diem

E, Ivancsits S, Rüdiger HW (2002) Basal levels of DNA strand breaks in human leukocytes determined by comet assay. J Toxicol Environ Health A 65:641–648PubMedCrossRef Diem E, Schwarz C, Adlkofer F, Jahn O, Rüdiger H (2005) Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro. Mutat Res 583:178–183PubMed ICNIRP (1998) Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz). Health Phys 74:494–522 Ivancsits S, Pilger A, Diem E, Jahn O, Rüdiger HW (2005) Cell type-specific genotoxic effects of intermittent extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Mutat Res 583:184–188PubMed Oberto G, Rolfo K, Yu P, Carbonatto M, Peano S, Kuster N, Ebert S, Tofani S (2007) Carcinogenicity study of 217 Hz pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields in Pim1 transgenic mice. Radiat Res 168:316–326PubMedCrossRef Repacholi MH, Basten A, Gebski V, Noonan D, Finnie J, Harris AW (1997) Lymphomas in E mu-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHZ electromagnetic fields.

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