Interestingly, another early Greek study of 100 gastric cancer pa

Interestingly, another early Greek study of 100 gastric cancer patients suggested that only the VEGF -634CC/CG genotypes were associated with a decreased (poorer survival) 10-year survival, compared with the GG genotype [35]. Our data on 167 gastric cancer patients LCZ696 indicated

that VEGF -634CC/CG carriers indeed had a poor 1-year survival than those with the VEGF -634 GG genotype. Amano et al. [37] also reported that no significant association was observed between the frequencies of the VEGF -460T>C, +405G>C, and 936C>T genotypes and 3-year disease-free survival of endometrial carcinoma patients in a Japanese study of 105 endometrial carcinoma patients. Because all these studies, including ours, have been relatively small, there was limited ability to perform the more powerful haplotype-based analysis that the analysis of a single allele or locus effect [34]. This is the first report,

to our knowledge, involving TGFB1 and VEGF polymorphisms and survival in gastric cancer patients mainly consisting of a Caucasian population; however, there were some limitations to the present study. Although we tried to collect recurrence data on GDC-0941 order these patients, we could not investigate this end-point due to the lack of a pre-defined follow-up plan. A second limitation was the fact that we only included three common TGFB1 SNPs and three VEGF SNPs. It is possible that some other important SNPs were missed or that the observed associations may be due to other polymorphisms in LD with the SNPs we studied. Also, no data on serum/plasma protein levels were available for the genotype-phenotype correlation analysis, because only DNA samples were available from these patients. There are other genes in addition to TGFB1 and VEGF that also play a role in cell growth and angiogenesis, representing a complex interplay of many activating and inhibitory factors [38]. Furthermore, Helicobacter

pylori infection, the presence or absence of which was not reported in the present study, is considered to be the cause of a progressive accumulation of genotypic changes in gastric cancer, which may lead to sporadic gastric cancer carcinogenesis [39]. Finally, the study size was too small to have a sufficient power to detect Branched chain aminotransferase small HRs. For example, our post-power calculation suggested that the sample size for an equal number (n = 55) of subjects in each genotype of each SNP, the power to detect an HR of 2 was <0.4, but >0.8 for a HR of 3.4 for a follow-up time of 5 years. Therefore, only the finding of HRs for 2-year survival of TGFB1 +915G>C would have a sufficient power, suggesting a much larger study would be needed to effectively test our hypothesis for CHIR-99021 in vitro effects of the overall survival. Conclusion In summary, we found that some polymorphisms TGFB1 and VEGF may be associated with 1- or 2-year survival rates of gastric cancer patients.

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