“In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to inve

“In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to investigate the consequences on brain cells of a chronic treatment with hyperforin, a plant extract known to dissipate the mitochondrial membrane potential and to release Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) from these organelles. Dissociated cortical neurons were grown in a culture medium supplemented with 1 mu M hyperforin. Live-cell imaging experiments with the fluorescent probes FluoZin-3 and Fluo-4 show that a 3 day-hyperforin treatment diminishes the size of the hyperforin-sensitive pools of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) whereas it increases the size of the DTDP-sensitive pool of Zn(2+) without affecting the

ionomycin-sensitive pool of Ca(2+). When assayed selleckchem by quantitative PCR the levels of mRNA coding for metallothioneins (MTs) I, II and III were increased in cortical neurons after a 3 day-hyperforin treatment. This was prevented by the zinc chelator TPEN, indicating that the plant extract controls the expression of MTs in a zinc-dependent manner. Brains of adult mice who received a daily injection (i.p.) of hyperforin (4 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks had a higher sulphur content than control animals. They also exhibited an enhanced expression of https://www.selleckchem.com/products/i-bet151-gsk1210151a.html the genes coding for MTs. However, the long-term treatment did not affect the brain levels of calcium and

zinc. Based on these results showing that hyperforin influences the size of the internal pools of Zn(2+), the expression of MTs and the brain cellular sulphur content, it is proposed that hyperforin changes

the Zn-storage capacity of brain cells and interferes with their thiol status. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating Tangeritin virus (LDV) can infect transplantable mouse tumors or xenograft tumors in mice through [DV-contaminated mouse biological materials, such as Matrigel, or through mice infected with LDV. LDV infects specifically mouse macrophages and alters immune system and tumor phenotype. The traditional approaches to remove LDV from tumor cells, by transplanting tumors into rats or culturing tumor cells in vitro, are inefficient, labor-intensive and time-consuming. Furthermore, these approaches are not feasible for primary tumor cells that cannot survive tissue culture conditions or that may change phenotype in rats. This study reports that fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is a simple and efficient approach for purifying living primary human breast tumor cells from LDV(+) mouse stromal cells, which can be completed in a few hours. When purified from Matrigel contaminated LDV(+) tumors, sorted human breast tumor cells, as well as tumors grown from sorted cells, were shown to be LDV-free, as tested by PCR. The results demonstrate that cell sorting is effective, much faster and less likely to alter tumor cell phenotype than traditional methods for removing LDV from xenograft models.

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