Notably, ORF19 behaves as a true late gene, indicating that RTA r

Notably, ORF19 behaves as a true late gene, indicating that RTA regulates all three phases of the lytic program. For each new promoter, the response to RTA was dependent on CSL, and 5 of the 10 candidate sites were shown to bind CSL in vitro. Analysis of individual sites highlighted the importance of a cytosine residue flanking Apoptosis inhibitor the core CSL binding sequence. These findings broaden the role for CSL in coordinating the KSHV lytic gene expression program and help to define a signature

motif for functional CSL sites within the viral genome.”
“Astrocytes play an important role in protecting neurons during ischemia and reperfusion in the central nervous system. Although many studies have shown that oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) can induce astrocyte apoptosis, the role of PERK/eIF2 alpha/ATF4 integrated stress response (ISR) in astrocyte apoptosis mediated by oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation (OGSD)/restoration remains uncertain. Astrocytes were subjected to a combination of oxygen, glucose, and serum deprivation for 8 h followed by restoration. Hoechst 33342 staining was performed to quantify apoptotic astrocytes and cell viability

was assessed with Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8). Immunocytochemical analysis and Western blotting for some related molecules, including pancreatic ER stress kinase (PERK), p-PERK, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 SB431542 alpha (eIF2 alpha), p-eIF2 alpha, activating transcription FER factor 4 (ATF4), caspase-12, were examined. Caspase activation and apoptosis were detected in neonatal rat astrocytes from spinal cord subjected to OGSD/restoration. We also observed an increase

in cytoplasmic staining of p-eIF2 alpha in astrocytes (8 h OGSD/15 min restoration) compared with that of non-treated cells. In addition, we found the sequential activation of PERK, eIF2 alpha, and ATF4 during OGSD/restoration by Western blotting. These results indicate that both the PERK/eIF2 alpha/ATF4 ISR and activation of caspase-12 may be involved in apoptosis of spinal cord astrocytes induced by OGSD/restoration. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The DA strain and other members of the TO subgroup of Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induce a persistent central nervous system infection associated with an inflammatory white matter demyelinating disease. TO subgroup strains synthesize an 18-kDa protein, L*, out of frame with the polyprotein from an initiation codon 13 nucleotides downstream from the polyprotein’s AUG codon. We previously generated a mutant virus from our infectious DA full-length clone that has a change of the L* AUG codon to ACG (with no change in the polyprotein’s amino acid sequence). Studies of this mutant virus showed that L* was key to the TO subgroup phenotype because the mutant had a decreased ability to persist and demyelinate.

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