Pathological observation showed that in paraquat group animals lu

Pathological observation showed that in paraquat group animals lung tissue had significant acute inflammatory changes, while ulinastatin intervention group had less inflammatory injury, which is consistent with pathology detection indicators. Pathology results also well explained the changes in the imaging and VEGF mass concentration. From comprehensive analysis, pathophysiological change at ALI ultra-early stage is vascular endothelial injury, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the exposed endothelial can easily form a local microthrombi

which affects blood flow and blood volume, expressed as the decline in rBF and rBV. Endothelial injury prompts VEGF release in large quantities into the blood. The concentration, vascular permeability and rPS increase, resulting in a large number of liquid into the tissue space, alveolar septum widened and various excessive inflammatory cell infiltration to the local tissue and aggravating tissue damage. The experiments showed that early Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical application of ulinastatin can significantly change the status of ALI ultra-early pathophysiology. It is expressed as significant improvement of vascular permeability at ALI early stage, suggesting that its mechanism should be related to reducing endothelial cell damage and lowering Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical serum VEGF content. This is consistent with findings of Cai Shi Xia

et al [12]about ulinastatin on pulmonary microvascular permeability in septic rats. From experimental results, at ultra-early ALI stage, ulinastatin can mitigate vascular endothelial injury, reduce serum VEGF content and elevation level of pulmonary vascular permeability, lower migration and infiltration of inflammatory cells, thereby reducing the degree of lung injury

and playing a role in lung protection. Studies[13,14] Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical also showed that ulinastatin can directly inhibit the release Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of neutrophils and other inflammatory mediators, thereby reducing damage to the endothelial cells and reducing capillary permeability. Therefore, it is further speculated that ulinastatin on one hand can protect endothelial cells and reduce the expression of VEGF in lung tissue to inhibit neutrophil infiltration, on the other hand can directly inhibit damage of neutrophils to endothelial cell to reduce VEGF release. They promote and influence each other and the specific mechanism still needs further study. LANCET ONCOLOGY Competing interests All authors declare no competing interests. Author contribution ZS and GC are co-first authors. They carried out all the experiments. GL did all the data analysis work. CJ and JC prepared all the experiment materials and participated on partial of experiment work. GA designed the experiments and wrote this manuscript. Declarations This article has been published as part of BMC Emergency Medicine Volume 13 Supplement 1, 2013: Proceedings of the 2012 Emergency Medicine Annual Congress. The full contents of the supplement are available online at

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