This study demonstrated the beneficial formulation of liposomes w

This study demonstrated the beneficial formulation of liposomes with better control, delivery and releases in the striatum of the anti-Parkinson agents [64]. Glutathione and its associated enzymes form one of the major antioxidant defense in all cells. There is evidence

that nonliposomal glutathione crosses the BBB but with low capacity. Recently, a liposomal preparation of glutathione supplied in a liposomal formulation was indicated as promising therapeutic for neuronal maintenance in Parkinson’s disease, autism, and schizophrenia [65]. Newly, several L-DOPA Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dimeric prodrugs have been encapsulated in unilamellar liposomes of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, and administrated intraperitoneal via. This formulation showed about 3 fold increase in basal dopamine levels and a sustained delivery of dopamine in the striatum compared with the treatment of equimolar administration of L-DOPA itself. These experiments demonstrated the better improvement of current drugs only changing the delivery and encapsulation [66]. One interesting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical example happened with GDNF (glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor). However, two open-label trials involving continuous GDNF infusion into the putamen of Parkinson’s disease patients were stopped due to lack of good results [67, 68]. Although GDNF did not work properly in these clinical trials GDNF may still be an interesting

candidate for the future, the problems described by the trial could be related to dose and mode of delivery of the growth factor, and; therefore, polymer-based drug delivery systems such Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as liposomes could be valuable in these respects. Recently, one study showed the clinical application of apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist. The main problem of apomorphine is the instability and the need for frequent injections. This group developed apomorphine encapsulated within liposomes to protect it from degradation

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and enhance the permeability across the BBB. They selleck compound obtained promising results; the uptake of liposomes into the brain was rapid and prolonged, targeting properly the apomorphine into the damaged brain [69]. 4.2. Liposomes in Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia in the elderly population. The mechanisms underlying this disease are not yet completely clear. Loss of short-term memory, language impairment and disorientation of time are that looking like depression symptoms. At the later stages of the disease, behavioural GSK-3 and psychiatric symptoms develop subsequent to the decline in the motor functions [70]. Genetic and biochemical clues suggest that the progressive production and subsequent accumulation of amyloid-beta plays a role in the Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. There is no drug to treat Alzheimer’s disease completely. Indeed, strategies targeting the production and clearance of amyloid-beta peptide are the most advanced.

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