The need for temporary access before hemoaccess
was similar between the cohorts. African American patients demonstrated significantly smaller median basilic and cephalic vein diameters at most measured sites. Overall, 221 of 249 (88.8%) underwent AVF first. An AV graft was created in 17.9% of African American patients vs in only 7.1% of non-African www.selleckchem.com/products/repsox.html Americans (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.4; P = .009). The difference between median vein diameters used for autologous fistula creation in African American and non-African American patients was not significant. There was no significant difference in the primary patency (80.8% vs 76.2%; P = .4), primary functional patency (73.1% vs 69.2%; P = .5), or secondary functional patency rates (91.0% vs 96.5%; https://www.selleckchem.com/products/bay80-6946.html P = .1). Average primary fistula survival time was 257 days in African American and 256 in non-African American patients (P = .2).
Conclusions: African American patients are less likely than non-African American patients to undergo AVF during first-time hemodialysis access surgery. This ethnic discrepancy appears to be due to smaller arm vein diameters in African American patients. In African American patients with appropriate vein diameters who do undergo AVF, primary and functional patencies are equivalent to non-African American
patients. (J Vasc Surg 2012;56:424-32.)”
“Pain is the most common symptom reported in both the general population and the general medical setting. The aim of this study XAV-939 nmr is to evaluate the effectiveness, tolerance, and safety of venlafaxine extended-release (XR) monotherapy in treating first-episode outpatients fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for major depressive disorder with associated painful physical symptoms. Of the 102 outpatients enrolled, 86 (84.3%) completed the study. Venlafaxine XR treatment (75-225 mg/day) was followed by a significant decrease in the total scores for the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale from baseline to the second weekend (t value = 16.12, P<0.0001) and at every subsequent visit (weeks 4, 6, and 8, all P<0.0001). Significant differences were also found in the mean Visual Analog Scales for overall pain and the mean medical outcomes study pain measures from baseline to the second weekend (t value = 14.99, P<0.0001; t value = 12.59, P<0.0001) and at every visit (all P<0.0001). At the end of the eighth week, venlafaxine XR achieved response and remission rates of 68.6 and 40.2%, respectively. The remission rate for pain responders (improvement in Visual Analog Scale overall pain from baseline to last observation >= 50%) was significantly greater than that for pain nonresponders (56.1 vs. 20.0%, P<0.0001). The most common (>= 10%) adverse events were nausea (31.4%), dizziness (26.5%), and somnolence (22.5%).