“Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels see more regulate diverse neuronal properties including action potential threshold, amplitude, and duration, frequency of firing, neurotransmitter release, and resting membrane potential. In axons, Kv channels are clustered at a variety of functionally important sites including axon initial segments, juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons, nodes of Ranvier, and cerebellar basket cell terminals. These channels are part of larger protein complexes that include cell adhesion molecules and scaffolding proteins. These interacting proteins play important roles in recruiting K+ channels to distinct axonal domains.
Here, I review the composition, functions, and mechanism of localization of these K+ channel complexes in axons. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early protein (Zta) plays an essential role in viral lytic activation and pathogenesis. Zta is a basic zipper (b-Zip) domain-containing protein that binds multiple sites in the viral origin of lytic replication (OriLyt) and is required AZD1080 chemical structure for lytic-cycle DNA replication. We present evidence that Zta binds to a sequence-specific, imperfect DNA hairpin formed by an inverted repeat within the upstream essential element (UEE) of OriLyt. Mutations in the OriLyt sequence
that are predicted to disrupt hairpin formation also disrupt Zta binding in vitro. Restoration of the hairpin rescues the defect. We also show that OriLyt DNA isolated from replicating cells contains a nuclease-sensitive region that overlaps with the CHIR-99021 chemical structure inverted-repeat region of the UEE. Furthermore, point mutations in Zta that disrupt specific recognition of
the UEE hairpin are defective for activation of lytic replication. These data suggest that Zta acts by inducing and/or stabilizing a DNA hairpin structure during productive infection. The DNA hairpin at OriLyt with which Zta interacts resembles DNA structures formed at other herpesvirus origins and may therefore represent a common secondary structure used by all herpesvirus family members during the initiation of DNA replication.”
“Membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca(2+) transients generated by activation of voltage-gated Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels are local signals, which initiate physiological processes such as action potential conduction, synaptic transmission, and excitation-contraction coupling. Targeting of effector proteins and regulatory proteins to ion channels is an important mechanism to ensure speed, specificity, and precise regulation of signaling events in response to local stimuli. This article reviews experimental results showing that Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels form local signaling complexes, in which effector proteins, anchoring proteins, and regulatory proteins interact directly with ion channels.